Non-Cooperation Movement: Features, Causes and Results

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Non-Cooperation Movement

Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation, was part of many Indian revolutions that led to the day of independence. One of the significant movements & first attempts on a large scale for the independence of India was the Non-Cooperation movement. Many freedom fighters of India were associated with the moment. It was a peaceful and non-violent movement but later turned into violent acts.  From CBSE Social Science to competitive exams like UPSC, the Non-Cooperation Movement is an important topic in Indian History we should know about. Let’s discover all the important aspects of the Non-Cooperation Movement. 

Also Read: Non- Cooperation Movement in Hindi

About Non- Cooperation Movement

The non-cooperation movement was launched in 1920 on 5th September. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi & focused on abolishing the use of British products, declining or resigning from British posts,  educational institutions, prohibiting government regulations, courts, etc. The movement was non-violent & launched to withdraw the nation’s cooperation after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre & Rowlatt Act. Mahatma Gandhi stated India could achieve independence within a year if this movement was a success. It was the transition of individuals to a mass movement. Non-cooperation was focused to get full independence also known as Purna Swaraj.

Non-Cooperation Movement
Credits – indiatoday.in

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Non-Cooperation Movement Year & Date Timeline

Event of Non-cooperation movement Date
Rowlatt Act 1918
Khalifa lost the war in turkey 1919
Official Commencement of Non- cooperation Movement August 1920
Layout & objective of Non-cooperation Movement in Kolkata September 1920
Leadership formed from 15 congress committees in Nagpur December 1920
Chauri Chaura Incident 5 February 1922
Mahatma Gandhi Arrested & sentenced March 1922
Swaraj Party formed by CR Das & Motilal Nehru 1 January 1923
Credits: Magnet Brains

Features of Non-Cooperation Movement

The non-cooperation movement was based on two aspects majorly, struggle & rules of conduct. Here are some of its features: 

  • Renunciation from their titles and notable posts
  • Non- cooperation movement pushed the use & manufacturing of goods & products made in India were encouraged more & interdict the use of British products.
  • The most essential feature of the non-cooperation movement was to follow non-violent & peaceful to fight against the British rules.
  • Indians were asked to refuse to take part in elections for the legislative council.
  • Prohibiting & withdrawing British education institutions

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Causes of Non-cooperation Movement

There was not just one reason behind initiating the Non-cooperation movement that happened over the past years before the non-cooperation movement was established. Here are some significant causes of this movement:

  • World War 1 – During world war 1 Indian soldiers fought from the British side & though as a token for Indian support, Britishers might return the favor in the form of India’s independence. Approximately 74,000 soldiers were sacrificed & in return, nothing was awarded. 
  • Economical Issues – After world war 1, there were several economical issues across India. Every product price was shooting up & on the other hand, farmers were not able to get the required wage for their agricultural products resulting in resentment toward the British government.
  • Rowlatt Act – Rowlatt Act denied the freedom of Indians to another level. According to this act, Britishers can arrest anyone & keep them prisoned without the right to a proper trial.  This led to one of the major causes of the Non-cooperation Movement.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Incident – The incident that fueled & filled every Indian with rage was the jallianwala Bagh massacre that occurred in 1919, April 13. The minimal faith in the British government was shattered. In this massacre, 379 people died & 1200 injured unarmed civilians were harmed by the orders of  Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer 
  • Khilafat agitation – The religious head of Muslims at that time was considered the sultan of turkey. In the first world war when the turkey was defeated by the Britishers, a committee was formed known as the Khilafat movement led by Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani. This movement acted in unity between Hindus & Muslims as the leaders of the khilafat movement joined the non-cooperation movement.

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Non-Cooperation Movement Suspended

Non-Cooperation Movement

The non-cooperation movement was one of the largest movements in the freedom struggle. Despite all the efforts, it was a success & due to certain reasons, it was suspended.

  • In Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 February,  a violent group of peasants set fire to the police station & killed 22 policemen.
  • Non -cooperation movement was non-violent or peaceful but in some parts, the movement turned into violent outrage & protest.
  • Gandhi Ji was criticized by leaders like CR Das, Motilal Nehru & Rabindranath Tagore stating that India was not ready for a non-violent movement. 

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Non- Cooperation Movement and Its Impact

Even though the Non-cooperation movement was not a success but it left few impacts. Here are all the impacts of this movement:

  • The movement developed an anti – British sentiment among the people that led to people trying to get rid of the British rule & leaders
  • When the Khilafat movement was merged with the non-cooperation movement it brought unity in Hindus & Muslims.
  • Boycotting of British goods & promotion of khadi products
  • This was the first movement in which large masses took part, it brought people of different categories like peasants, merchants, etc together in the protest.
Credits – Bookstawa

Also Read – Indian National Movement

Spread of the Non-Cooperation Movement

  • The Ali brothers and Mahatma Gandhi conducted nationwide student and political worker rallies and meetings. Thousands of students left colonial schools and colleges to enroll in over 800 national schools and colleges
  • The academic boycott in Bengal was prominent. C.R Das played a significant role in promoting it, and Subhash Bose headed the Calcutta National Congress. This was also successful in Punjab, where Lala Lajpat Rai played the leading role
  • Lawyers such as C.R Das, Motilal Nehru, Saifuddin Kitchlew, and M.R Jaykar boycotted the courts
  • A campaign against Union Board taxes was launched in the Midnapore district of Bengal. No-tax movements also emerged in the Andhra district of Guntur in Chirala’s Pirala and Pedanandipadu Taluka
  • In Uttar Pradesh, a powerful Kisan Sabha movement was emerging. Jawaharlal Nehru was the leader of the non – cooperation movement
  • In the Malabar region of Kerala, the Non – Cooperation and Khilafat propaganda aroused Muslim tenants, called Moplahs, against their renters. 
  • In Assam, tea plantation laborers called strikes. 
  • Andhra defied forest laws
  • The Akali movement in Punjab was part of the Non – Cooperation Movement to resist the control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests)

Personalities  Associated

The non-cooperation movement brought together many leaders & common people as well. Hindus & Muslims were reunited in the Non- cooperation Movement. Some of the other leaders & personalities associated with the Non-cooperation Movement were: 

  • Basanti Debi
  • Jitendralal Banerjee
  • Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Maulana Mohammed Ali
  • Maulana Shaukat Ali
  • Motilal Nehru
  • Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Rajendra Prasad
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  • M.N. Roy

Facts about Non-Cooperation Movement for UPSC

Aspirants for UPSC 2021 should know the points given below about the Non-Cooperation Movement:

Personalities Associated  Role in the Non-Cooperation Movement
Mahatma Gandhi -He was the main force behind the movement
-In 1920, announced a manifesto 
C.R. Das -Moved the main resolution on non-cooperation in the annual session of the Congress, Nagpur (1920)
-His three subordinates, Birendranath Samsal in Midnapore, Subhash Bose in Calcutta and J.M. Sengupta in Chittagong, played a significant role in uniting Hindus and Muslims
Jawaharlal Nehru -Supported the formation of Kisan Sabhas and was against Gandhiji’s decision to call off the movement
Subhash Chandra Bose -Resigned from the civil service as a sign of resistance
-Designated as the Principal of the National College in Calcutta
Ali brothers (Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali) -At the All India Khilafat Conference, Muhammed Ali announced that ‘it was religiously unlawful for the Muslims to continue in the British Army.’
Motilal Nehru -Renounced his legal practice
Lala Lajpat Rai -Initially, did not support the movement
-Later, he was against its withdrawal
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel -Expanded the campaign in Gujarat

Non-Cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement

Civil disobedience was initiated under the stewardship of Mahatma Gandhi. It was launched after the observance of Independence Day in 1930. The civil disobedience movement commenced with the infamous dandi march when Gandhi left the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad on foot with 78 other members of the Ashram for Dandi on 12 March 1930. After reaching Dandi, Gandhi broke the salt law. It was considered illegal to make salt as it was solely a government monopoly. The salt satyagraha led to a widespread acceptance of the civil Disobedience movement across the country. This event became symbolic of people’s defiance of the government policies. To know more, read our blog on Civil Disobedience Movement

Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement

Two movements that were initiated to oppose British rule in India during the fight for India Independence were Khilafat and Non-cooperation movement. Both of the movements followed non-violence acts. While there were many reasons behind the movements, one major reason behind the Khilafat movement was when the religious head of Muslims who was the sultan of turkey was killed by Britishers. Khilafat movement led by Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani. This movement united Hindus and Muslims as the leaders of the khilafat movement joined the non-cooperation movement.

Credits: MagnetBrains

Chauri Chaura Incident

A Congress and Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura, Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh on February 5, 1922. Out of irritation, police officers were attacked in the procession. In retaliation, the police opened fire on the unarmed protesters. The entire procession attacked the police, and the mob set fire to the police station building where the police hid. The policemen who were attempting to escape were thrown into the fire. Twenty-two police officers were killed.

Gandhiji was deeply disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident. He decided to call off the movement because it violated the basis of non – violence. The Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.

Quit India Movement

The main reason behind the launch of the Quit India Movement in 1942 as it became one of the powerful Indian National Movements include:

  • The failure of the Cripps proposal become the awakening call for the Indians 
  • The discontent of the general public with hardships brought by the world war
Credits: Bookstawa

Non- Cooperation Movement PPT

Credits : Non- Cooperation Movement Slideshare

Non- Cooperation Movement Poster

Credits: Cultural India

Non- Cooperation Movement UPSC Questions

What are the names of the Ali brothers associated with the Khilafat Movement?

Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali are the Ali Brothers associated with Khilafat Movement.

What is the Rowlatt Act?

Rowlatt Act was an act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council that stated a person can be imprisoned without trial or judicial review.

Was Mahatma Gandhi arrested after the non-cooperation movement?

Yes, Mahatma Gandhi was arrested & sentenced to 6 years imprisonment after the non-cooperation movement.

What are the names of major leaders in the non-cooperation movement?

Lala Lajpat Rai, Motilal Nehra, CR Das & Mahatma Gandhi are the major leaders associated with Non- Cooperation Movement.

Why was the non-cooperation movement stopped or dissolved?

After the chauri chaura incident in which 22 policemen were killed by a violent mob, Mahatma Gandhi decided to dissolve the Non-cooperation Movement.

What was the duration of the non-cooperation movement?

The non-cooperation movement was initiated in 1920 & ended in 1922.

When did the non-cooperation movement end?

Non- cooperative movement came to an end in February 1922

When did the non-cooperation movement began?

Non- cooperative movement began in August 1920.

Bonus Reads

This was all about the Non- Cooperation Movement, We hope this blog has helped you to understand the topic better. The Non-cooperation movement is one of the topics covered in government exams and UPSC exams as well. For the latest updates around study blogs, you can follow us on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and also subscribe to our newsletter. If you are planning to study abroad then register for a free trial session with Leverage Edu experts. 

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