Mahatma Gandhi, father of the nation, was part of many of Indian revolutions that led to the day of independence. One of the significant movements & first attempts on a large scale for the independence of India was the Non-Cooperation movement. Many freedom fighters of India were associated with the moment. It was a peaceful and non-violent movement but later turned into violent acts. Let’s discover all the important aspects of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
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About Non- Cooperation Movement
The non-cooperation movement was launched in 1920 on 5th September. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi & focused on abolishing the use of British products, declining or resigning from British posts, educational institutions, prohibiting government regulations, courts, etc. The movement was non-violent & launched to withdraw the nation’s cooperation after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre & Rowlatt Act. Mahatma Gandhi stated India could achieve independence within a year if this movement was a success. It was the transition of individuals to a mass movement. Non-cooperation was focused to get full independence also known as Purna Swaraj.
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Non-Cooperation Movement Timeline
|Event of Non-cooperation movement||Date|
|Khalifa lost the war in turkey||1919|
|Official Commencement of Non- cooperation Movement||August 1920|
|Layout & objective of Non-cooperation Movement in Kolkata||September 1920|
|Leadership formed from 15 congress committee in Nagpur||December 1920|
|Chauri Chaura Incident||5 February 1922|
|Mahatma Gandhi Arrested & sentenced||March 1922|
|Swaraj Party formed by CR Das & Motilal Nehru||1 January 1923|
Features of Non-Cooperation Movement
The non-cooperation movement was based on two aspects majorly, struggle & rules of conduct. Here are some of its features:
- Renunciation from their titles and notable posts
- Non- cooperation movement pushed the use & manufacturing of goods & products made in India were encouraged more & interdict the use of British products.
- The most essential feature of the non-cooperation movement was to follow non-violent & peaceful to fight against the British rules.
- Indians were asked to refuse to take part in elections for the legislative council.
- Prohibiting & withdrawing British education institutions
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Causes of Non-cooperation Movement
There was not just one reason behind initiating the Non-cooperation movement that happened over the past years before the non-cooperation movement was established. Here are some significant causes of this movement:
- World War 1 – During world war 1 Indian soldiers fought from the British side & though as a token for Indian support, Britishers might return the favor in the form of India’s independence. Approximately 74,000 soldiers were sacrificed & in return, nothing was awarded.
- Economical Issues – After world war 1, there were several economical issues across India. Every product price was shooting up & on the other hand, farmers were not able to get the required wage for their agricultural products resulting in resentment toward the British government.
- Rowlatt Act – Rowlatt Act denied the freedom of Indians to another level. According to this act, Britishers can arrest anyone & keep them prisoned without the right to a proper trial. This led to one of the major causes of the Non-cooperation Movement.
- Jallianwala Bagh Incident – The incident that fueled & filled every Indian with rage was the jallianwala Bagh massacre that occurred in 1919, April 13. The minimal faith in the British government was shattered. In this massacre, 379 people died & 1200 injured unarmed civilians were harmed by the orders of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer
- Khilafat agitation – The religious head of Muslims at that time was considered the sultan of turkey. In the first world war when the turkey was defeated by the Britishers, a committee was formed known as the Khilafat movement led by Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani. This movement acted in unity between Hindus & Muslims as the leaders of the khilafat movement joined the non-cooperation movement.
Suspension of Non-Cooperation Movement
The non-cooperation movement was one of the largest movements in the freedom struggle. Despite all the efforts, it was a success & due to certain reasons, it was suspended.
- In Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 February, a violent group of peasants set fire to the police station & killed 22 policemen.
- Non -cooperation movement was non-violent or peaceful but in some parts, the movement turned into violent outrage & protest.
- Gandhi Ji was criticized by leaders like CR Das, Motilal Nehru & Rabindranath Tagore stating that India was not ready for a non-violent movement.
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Impact of Non- Cooperation Movement
Even though the Non-cooperation movement was not a success but it left few impacts. Here are all the impacts of this movement:
- The movement developed an anti – British sentiment among the people that led to people trying to get rid of the British rule & leaders
- When the Khilafat movement was merged with the non-cooperation movement it brought unity in Hindus & Muslims.
- Boycotting of British goods & promotion of khadi products
- This was the first movement in which large masses took part, it brought people of different categories like peasants, merchants, etc together in the protest.
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The non-cooperation movement brought together many leaders & common people as well. Hindus & Muslims were reunited in the Non- cooperation Movement. Some of the other leaders & personalities associated with the Non-cooperation Movement were:
- Basanti Debi
- Jitendralal Banerjee
- Subhash Chandra Bose
- Maulana Mohammed Ali
- Maulana Shaukat Ali
- Motilal Nehru
- Lala Lajpat Rai
- Rajendra Prasad
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
- M.N. Roy
Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali are the Ali Brothers associated with Khilafat Movement.
Rowlatt Act was an act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council that stated a person can be imprisoned without trial or judicial review.
Yes, Mahatma Gandhi was arrested & sentenced to 6 years imprisonment after the non-cooperation movement.
Lala Lajpat Rai, Motilal Nehra, CR Das & Mahatma Gandhi are the major leaders associated with Non- Cooperation Movement.
After the chauri chaura incident in which 22 policemen were killed by a violent mob, Mahatma Gandhi decided to dissolve the Non-cooperation Movement.
The Non-cooperation movement was initiated in 1920 & ended in 1922.
This was all about the Non- Cooperation Movement, We hope this blog has helped you to understand the topic better. The Non-cooperation movement is one of the topics covered in government exams & UPSC exams as well. For the latest updates around study blogs, you can follow us on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and also subscribe to our newsletter. If you are planning to study abroad then register for a free trial session with Leverage Edu experts.