NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 ‘Major Domains of the Earth’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

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Class 6 Geography Chapter 5

Summary: NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 

In NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 5, we learn about the different landforms and regions on Earth. There are four main domains: the Lithosphere (land), the Hydrosphere (water), the Atmosphere (air), and the Biosphere (life). The Lithosphere has continents and oceans. We explore how continents and oceans are connected. The continents are like big pieces of land, and oceans are vast water bodies. We read the Hydrosphere, which is all about water. It covers the oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes. We also learn about the water cycle, which is like a never-ending journey of water from the sky to the ground and back up again. Then, we read about the Atmosphere, which is the air around us. We discover different layers and how they affect our weather. Finally, we learn about the Biosphere, where life thrives. We learn about different ecosystems and how plants and animals depend on each other.

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6

Also Read: Which Region Receives the Most Rainfall in India?

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 5

Major Domains of the Earth
  • Lithosphere: The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which three main components of the environment meet, overlap, and interact. The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere. 
  • Atmosphere: The gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth, is the Atmosphere, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
  • Hydrosphere: Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. 
  • Biosphere: The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water, and air together, which contains all forms of life.
  • Continents: There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents.

Also Read: Layers of Atmosphere

5 Layers of Atmosphere
Layers of Atmosphere
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6

Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 5

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the four major domains of the earth?

(b) Name the major continents of the earth.

(c) Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.

(d) Name the different layers of atmosphere.

(e) Why is the earth called the ‘blue planet’?

(f) Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the Land Hemisphere?

(g) Why is the Biosphere important for living organisms?


(a) The four major domains of the earth are:

  1. Lithosphere: This is the solid outer layer of the Earth. It includes the continents and the ocean floor.
  2. Hydrosphere: This is all the water on Earth, including oceans, rivers, lakes, and even underground water.
  3. Atmosphere: It’s the layer of gases that surrounds our planet. It’s what we breathe and where the weather happens.
  4. Biosphere: This includes all living organisms on Earth, from tiny microbes to plants, animals, and humans.

(b) The major continents of the Earth are:

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. North America
  4. South America
  5. Antarctica
  6. Europe
  7. Australia

(c) The two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere are:

  1. Australia
  2. Antarctica

(d) The different layers of the atmosphere are:

  1. Troposphere: This is where weather happens and where we live. It’s closest to the Earth’s surface.
  2. Stratosphere: This is where the ozone layer is found, which protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  3. Mesosphere: This is where meteors burn up when they enter the Earth’s atmosphere.
  4. Thermosphere: This is where the International Space Station orbits. It’s very high up and gets very hot.

(e) The Earth is called the ‘blue planet’ because when seen from space, it looks mostly blue due to the vast amount of water on its surface.

(f) The Northern Hemisphere is called the Land Hemisphere because it has more landmass compared to the Southern Hemisphere. It’s where most of the major continents are located.

(g) The Biosphere is important for living organisms because it’s the zone where life exists. It includes all plants, animals, and microorganisms. It provides us with the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the habitats we live in. It’s crucial for the survival and well-being of all living creatures on Earth

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is

(i) the Andes         (ii) the Himalayas        (iii) the Urals

(b) The continent of North America is linked to South America by

(i) an Isthmus       (ii) a Strait                    (iii) a Canal

(c) The major constituent of the atmosphere by percent is

(i) Nitrogen           (ii) Oxygen                   (iii) Carbon dioxide

(d) The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocks is

(i) the Atmosphere            (ii) the Hydrosphere             (iii) the Lithosphere

(e) Which is the largest continent?

(i) Africa              (ii) Asia                         (iii) Australia


(iii) the Urals

(i) an Isthmus

(i) Nitrogen

(iii) the Lithosphere

(ii) Asia

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) The deepest point on the earth is Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.

(b) The Indian Ocean is named after a country.

(c) The Biosphere is a narrow contact zone of land, water, and air that supports life.

(d) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as Eurasia.

(e) The highest mountain peak on the earth is Mount Everest.

Also Read: 

NCERT Class 6 Geography: Chapter-1 The Earth in the Solar System

NCERT Class 6 Geography: Chapter- 2 Latitudes and Longitudes

NCERT Class 6 Geography: Chapter-3 Motions of the Earth

NCERT Class 6 Geography: Chapter-4 Maps

CBSE NCERT Notes Class 6 EnglishCBSE NCERT Notes Class 6 History CBSE NCERT Notes Class 6 Geography
CBSE  NCERTNotes Class 6 CivicsCBSE NCERT Notes Class 6 MathematicsCBSE Notes of Class 6 Science


Q.1. Name the 7 continents of the world.

Ans: The 7 continents of the world are:
-North America
-South America

Q.2. What do you mean by Biosphere?

Ans: The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water, and air together, which contains all forms of life.

Q.3. What is the meaning of Continents?

Ans: There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents

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