Summary: NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 3
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 3, titled “Motions of the Earth,” explores how our planet moves in space. It introduces two main motions: rotation and revolution. Rotation is the Earth spinning on its axis, causing day and night. This axis is an imaginary line passing through the North and South Poles. Revolution is the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, taking about 365.25 days, leading to seasons.
The chapter explains the concept of the equator, which divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It also introduces the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which mark the farthest points the Sun reaches. This motion influences climate and weather patterns worldwide. Additionally, the chapter touches on the time zones and the International Date Line, helping us manage time globally.
These motions are crucial for understanding Earth’s dynamic systems. Students should grasp how they affect our daily lives, climate, and seasons.
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Important Points in NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 3
- The Earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution.
- The axis of the earth which is an imaginary line, makes an angle of 66½° with its orbital plane. The plane formed by the orbit is known as the orbital plane.
- The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is called the circle of illumination.
- Six hours saved every year are added to make one day (24 hours) over a span of four years. This surplus day is added to the month of February. Thus every fourth year, February is 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year.
- The North Pole is inclined towards the sun and the places beyond the Arctic Circle experience continuous daylight for about six months.
- Since a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere is getting light from the sun, it is summer in the regions north of the equator. The longest day and the shortest night at these places occur on 21st June.
- The summer solstice occurs at the moment the earth’s tilt toward the sun is at a maximum.
- The winter solstice marks the exact moment when half of Earth is tilted the farthest away from the sun.
- On 21st March and September 23, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox.
Important Diagram in NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 3
Make a drawing to show the inclination of the earth.
Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 3
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with its orbital plane?
(b) Define rotation and revolution.
(c) What is a leap year?
(d) Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice.
(e) What is an equinox?
(f) Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice in different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere?
(g) Why do the poles experience about six months day and six months night?
(a) The angle of inclination of the Earth’s axis with its orbital plane is about 23.5 degrees.
(b) Rotation is when the Earth spins around its own axis, causing day and night. Revolution is when the Earth moves in an orbit around the Sun, causing changes in seasons.
(c) A leap year is a year that has an extra day, February 29, to keep our calendar in sync with the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. It happens every four years.
(d) Summer Solstice happens around June 21 when the Northern Hemisphere leans towards the Sun, giving it the longest day and shortest night. Winter Solstice occurs around December 21 when the Northern Hemisphere leans away from the Sun, resulting in the shortest day and longest night.
(e) An equinox occurs twice a year, around March 21 and September 23, when day and night are almost equal in length. It happens because the Earth’s axis is not tilted towards or away from the Sun.
(f) The Southern Hemisphere experiences Winter Solstice when the Northern Hemisphere has Summer Solstice, and vice versa. This happens because of the Earth’s tilt and its position in orbit around the Sun.
(g) The poles experience about six months of day and six months of night because of the Earth’s tilt. When one pole is tilted towards the Sun, it experiences continuous daylight, while the other pole is in darkness. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, this condition reverses.
2. Tick the correct answers.
(a) The movement of the Earth around the Sun is known as
(i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Inclination
(b) Direct rays of the Sun fall on the equator on
(i) 21 March (ii) 21 June (iii) 22 December
(c) Christmas is celebrated in summer in
(i) Japan (ii) India (iii) Australia
(d) Cycle of the seasons is caused due to
(i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Gravitation
b- (i) 21 March
c- (iii) Australia
d- (ii) Revolution
3. Fill in the blanks.
(a) A leap year has 366 days.
(b) The daily motion of the Earth is rotation.
(c) The Earth travels around the Sun in an elliptical orbit.
(d) The Sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer on 21st June.
(e) Days are shorter during the winter season.
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Ans: The Earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution.
Ans: The angle of inclination of the Earth’s axis with its orbital plane is about 23.5 degrees.
Ans: An equinox occurs twice a year, around March 21 and September 23, when day and night are almost equal in length. It happens because the Earth’s axis is not tilted towards or away from the Sun. An equinox occurs twice a year, around March 21 and September 23, when day and night are almost equal in length. It happens because the Earth’s axis is not tilted towards or away from the Sun.
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