Indian Polity: Notes, Topics; Books

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Indian Polity

Indian polity is a subject of great importance if a student is preparing for national-level competitive exams. Whether there are multiple-choice questions or essay-type, Indian polity questions encompass the topics corresponding to the political system of the country. It mainly covers the Indian constitution, fundamental rights as well as the role of the Union and State executive, constitutional and non-constitutional bodies, and so on. This blog aims to bring you a comprehensive guide on Indian polity, including the topics covered, important notes as well as preparation guides and books.

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Topics Covered

Before exploring the essential aspects of Indian Polity, let’s take a look at the major topics that this subject encompasses:

Indian Constitution (basics)Historical Background of the Indian Constitution
Constitution of India: List of all Articles
Indian Constitution Parts and Articles
Parts of Indian Constitution: A Brief Overview
Schedules of Indian Constitution: A Brief Overview
Must-Know Articles of the Indian Constitution
Indian ConstitutionThe Preamble of India
Union and its Territory
Fundamental Rights
Directive Principles of State Policy
Fundamental Duties
Prime Minister, CoM and Attorney General
Supreme Court
Chief Minister and CoM
State Legislature
Components of StateExecutive: President of India

Legislature: Sessions of Parliament:
Adjournment, Prorogation, Dissolution, etc.;
When does a bill lapse in Indian Parliament;
Types of Majorities Used in the Indian Parliament;
Parliamentary committees in Rajya Sabha
and Lok sabha; Important Parliamentary Committees;
Election to Rajya Sabha;
Government budgeting in India: The process
and constitutional requirements; Budget documents
made simple; the Difference between full budget
and vote on an account; Cut motions: Policy cut,
Economy cut, and Token cut

Judiciary: Indian Judicial Doctrines- Principles of Constitutional
Law Explained;
Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law;
Arbitration In India – Mechanism, and Challenges;
The problem of pending cases in Indian courts- How to tackle?;
Capital Punishment, Mercy Pleas and the Supreme Court;
Special leave petition vs Review petition vs curative petition
vs mercy petition;
Contempt of Court: Time for a relook;
The problem of excessive government litigation
Fundamental RightsThe procedure established by law vs due process of law;
Fundamental rights vs directive principles;
Fundamental rights available only to a citizen of India;
Reservation in India; Encounter Killings;
Defamation in India; Transgender rights
Center-state RelationsInterstate Council vs national development council;
Simultaneous Elections; Indian Federalism;
Interstate river water disputes in India
Local Self GovernmentEvolution of local self-government

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Indian Polity Topics Explained

Now that you know the varied concepts you need to study, we have curated some key pointers covered under the different topics of Indian Polity that you must study for UPSC and other government exams!

Indian Constitution

The Indian constitution is the lengthiest written constitution. It contains 450 articles, 24 parts and 12 schedules along with the Preamble. The constitution comprises of provisional Judiciary, Election Commission, and Public Service Commission, to name a few. In government exams, several categories under the Indian constitution are covered along with issues including SC/ST/OBC categories along with their solutions are framed. Part 16 and Schedule 5 and 6 deal with these areas. The provisions regarding the administration of the states are also included in the Constitution.

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights were constituted for the development of the individual as well as society. It limits the exercise of executive and arbitrary laws of the legislature on an individual and is justiciable in nature. Six fundamental rights of every Indian citizen are as follows:

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right to freedom of religion
  4. Right against exploitation
  5. Cultural and educational rights
  6. Right to constitutional remedies

Directive Principles of State Policy

Directive principles of state policy are those crucial social and economic obligations that are imposed on the government to increase welfare in society. They can be classified into four categories:

  1. Socialistic
  2. Social Integration
  3. Gandhian Principles
  4. International Relations

Must Read: MPSC Exam

List of Indian Polity Books

Now let us discuss some of the useful books on Indian polity that can help you in understanding its vast syllabus while preparing for a competitive examination.

  1. Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination by M. Laxmikanth (Buy Here)

Amongst the popular books for UPSC exams, Indian Polity for Civil Services covers important political and constitutional issues of the country. It is a preferred preparation guide for any civil service examination and is an ideal one for those who are short on time and can pick this one rather than going through different Indian polity books.

  1. Important Judgements that Transformed India: Alex Andrews George (Buy Here)

The book is a perfect combination to be studied with M. Laxmikanth’s aforementioned text. It elucidates an analytical commentary on the current political situation of the country. Moreover, it produces some important case studies of popular judgments by Indian courts, which makes the book even more informational and helpful. There are copious sample questions and previous year questions included under the text to assist students in assessing the type of questions that can come in the exam.

  1. Introduction to the Constitution of India by Dr Durga Das Basu (Buy Here)

Written by a well-known Indian jurist, Dr Durga Das Basu, the Introduction to the Constitution is a must-read text for political science students as well as researchers. If you are searching for an analytical review of Indian Polity, this bestseller is the one to pick as it can assist you in gearing up for the exam with a detailed study of the Indian Constitution.

  1. Our Constitution by Subhash C. Kashyap (Buy Here)

Subhash C. Kashyap is well-known for his excellence in matters of parliament and the Indian constitution. Bringing a basic introduction to the Indian Constitution, it also aims to take readers further deeper into comprehending the key features of the Preamble as well as the Legislature.

Some other books that students can go through are:

  • Our Parliament by Subhash Kashyap
  • Pax Indica by Shashi Tharoor
  • Class 11 and 12 NCERT textbook of Political Science
  • India Yearbook
  • India and the World by Surendra Kumar

Must Read: Class 11 Political Science


An Indian polity is what?

The president of India is the head of state and the country’s first citizen, and the prime minister of India is in charge of the government. India is a parliamentary, secular, democratic republic.

Who founded the Indian political system?

The Indian Constitution is credited to Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar as its founder. The Constituent Assembly established a Drafting Committee on August 29, 1947.

What is the political system in India like?

The constitution is a binding document for the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of government. India is governed by a parliamentary system, with the executive directly answerable to the legislative, according to its constitution.

Hence, studying Indian Polity for government exams is crucial to increase your chances of acing them successfully. If you are aiming to appear for competitive exams like IELTS, SAT, GMAT or GRE, book an online demo session with our experts at Leverage Edu and we will guide you in curating the best preparation strategies and equipping you with the right study material to ace your chosen exam with flying colours.

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