NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1, titled “What, Where, How and When,” teaches the fundamental concepts and methodologies of historical exploration. This chapter serves as an important foundation for understanding the discipline of history. You may succeed in your CBSE exams and many other competitive tests by using the chapter notes.
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Summary: NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1
The chapter begins by explaining the significance of history as a subject. It highlights the need to comprehend past events, their contexts, and their implications for the present and future. The exploration of ‘What’ refers to the identification and description of historical events and processes. Moving forward, the chapter addresses ‘Where’, highlighting the historical occurrences. This involves determining the geographical locations where events occurred and recognizing the influence of geography on historical phenomena. The chapter introduces the concept of ‘How,’ to understand the methodologies used in historical research and analysis. It teaches students about various sources of historical information, such as primary and secondary sources, artifacts, manuscripts, and oral traditions. The chapter also addresses ‘When.’ It encourages students to situate events within specific timeframes, determining the chronological order of occurrences.
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Important Dates in NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1
Here are a few of the crucial dates that are listed in the class 6 history chapter 1 “What, Where, How and When?” that students need to be aware of while preparing for the CBSE Exams or any other competitive exams.
|Beginning of agriculture
|8000 years ago
|First cities on the Indus
|4700 years ago
|Cities in the Ganga valley, a big kingdom in Magadha
|2500 years ago
|about 2000 AD/CE
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Important Definitions in NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1
- Manuscript: A manuscript refers to a handwritten document or text, typically produced before the invention of printing. It may be a literary work, historical record, or any written material of significance.
- Inscription: An inscription is a carved, engraved, or written mark or text on a surface, often on stone or metal. These inscriptions serve as valuable historical or memorial records.
- Archaeology: Archaeology is a scientific discipline that involves the systematic study of past human societies through the analysis of material remains such as artifacts, structures, and environmental data.
- Historian: A historian is a scholar or expert who rigorously studies and interprets the past, utilizing various sources like written records, documents, artifacts, and oral traditions. Historians provide valuable insights into historical events and their contexts.
- Source: In historical context, a source refers to any piece of information, evidence, or material that provides insight into past events, conditions, or societies. Sources can be primary (direct accounts or artifacts from the time period) or secondary (interpretations or analyses based on primary sources).
- Decipherment: Decipherment is the process of converting coded or obscure writing into a comprehensible and understandable form. This skill is often employed in archaeology and epigraphy to understand ancient scripts or languages.
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Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1
1. Match the following:
|The first big kingdom
|Hunting and gathering
|Cities about 2,500 years ago
|Indus and its tributaries
|The first cities
2. List one major difference between manuscripts and inscriptions.
Ans. One major difference between manuscripts and inscriptions is that manuscripts are handwritten documents on materials like parchment or paper, while inscriptions are writings carved or engraved on durable surfaces like stone or metal.
3. Return to Rasheeda’s question. Can you think of some answers to it?
Ans. Rasheeda’s question was “How could anyone know what had happened so many years ago?”. We can find out what happened so many years ago through the following:
- Tools and weapons
- Reading the books written in the past
4. Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find. Which of these could be made of stone?
Ans: The findings of Archaeologists could be of the following types.
1. Buildings made of stone and brick
The objects that might be made up of stones are as mentioned.
5. Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did?
Ans. Here are some major reasons why ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did:
- In ancient times, people mostly relied on oral traditions for passing down information and stories. Writing and record-keeping were not as prevalent or accessible as they are today. This meant that information was shared through spoken words from one generation to another.
- The availability and accessibility of writing materials and tools were significantly limited in earlier times. Materials like papyrus, parchment, and ink were not easily obtainable for the general population. As a result, ordinary individuals found it impractical to keep detailed written records of their daily activities.
- Historically, levels of literacy were comparatively lower than in recent times. The ability to read and write was often limited to a privileged few, such as scribes, scholars, or elites. The majority of ordinary men and women did not possess the necessary literacy skills to maintain written records.
- In ancient civilizations, life was often represented by a focus on basic survival needs. People were mainly engaged in tasks related to farming, hunting, gathering, and other essential activities. They did not have the time to engage in extensive record-keeping.
6. Describe at least two ways in which you think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.
Ans: Here are two ways in which I think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.
1. Economic Status and Livelihood
Kings held a position of immense wealth and power in society. They had access to abundant resources, including land, precious metals, and skilled labour. Their main source of income was often taxation from the lands they ruled, trade, and tribute from vassal states. Also, they had the authority to mint their own coins to boost their economic influence.
On the other hand, farmers formed a vital section of society engaged in agriculture. They worked in the fields, cultivating crops and rearing livestock. Their livelihood was primarily dependent on the agricultural produce they yielded. Unlike kings, their wealth was usually limited to what they could grow and trade within their local communities.
2. Social and Political Roles
Kings held prominent authority in their respective kingdoms. They were responsible for governing their subjects, maintaining law and order, and safeguarding their territories from external threats. Kings often had a court of advisors, nobles, and administrators to help manage the affairs of the kingdom. They were also the chief patrons of art, culture, and religious activities.
Farmers were an integral part of the agrarian society and played a crucial role in sustaining the economy. They were generally not involved in the political governance of the kingdom. Instead, they followed the rules and regulations set by the ruling authority. Their primary focus was on agricultural practices and contributing to the agricultural surplus, which in turn supported the overall functioning of the kingdom.
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Ans: Agriculture started almost 8000 years ago.
Ans: A manuscript refers to a handwritten document or text, typically produced before the invention of printing. It may be a literary work, historical record, or any written material of significance.
Ans: Manuscripts are handwritten documents on materials like parchment or paper, while inscriptions are writings carved or engraved on durable surfaces like stone or metal.
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