MBBS Subjects: Course Structure, Syllabus, Best Books

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There is no better work than serving mankind and doctors are playing a crucial role in curing a wide range of diseases, enhancing global healthcare by diagnosing and healing. These professionals work hard towards eradicating the healthcare emergencies that arise due to many reasons like pandemics, traumas, war injuries, accidents, maternity, etc. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, popularly known as MBBS is an undergraduate program that offers a study of a wide range of subjects under the MBBS Syllabus. To seek admission to the degree program, you need to have passed 12th-class exams with BiPC subjects. Here is the blog that elucidates the key attributes such as MBBS subjects, course highlights, and top universities

MBBS Full FormBachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery
MBBS Course duration5 years 6 months
MBBS AdmissionNEET
MBBS Syllabus19 subjects
MBBS abroadUSA, UK, Russia, Canada
MBBS Colleges in IndiaAIIMS, PGIMER, CMC Vellore, etc

Also Read: MBBS in Foreign Countries

MBBS Subjects Overview

The Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or MBBS is a professional degree program that trains you in the field of Medical Sciences. The duration of the program can stretch 5-6 years. Considered one of the most popular degrees, MBBS requires hard work and dedication throughout the study and during practice. The undergraduate course is the amalgam of a range of topics that include surgical procedures, studying human anatomy, medicine, and paediatrics. The MBBS syllabus is stretched over 9-11 semesters with each semester of 6 months. In the final year of the degree, you are required to complete the mandatory internship program at a hospital to sharpen your skills in the field. 

Find out the ways to pursue an MBBS from Abroad!

Subjects of MBBS

There are nineteen subjects in the entire course of MBBS. Here are the subjects:

PhysiologyObstetrics and Gynecology
Community MedicinePediatrics
Forensic MedicineSurgery and allied subjects
PathologyClinical postings
Clinical postingsOphthalmology

MBBS Syllabus

The MBBS syllabus is very vast and comprehensively covers the core concepts of both Medicine and Surgery. The curriculum is designed to impart extensive knowledge in an array of medical-related topics and equip the students with the skills relevant to the industry thus helping you prosper in the field of Medicine.

Pre-Clinical: The first two semesters of an MBBS degree program form the pre-clinical studies. It includes syllabi like Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Biophysics, etc. The introductory phase will help you get started with intensive learning by covering the majority of basic concepts and the fundamentals of the healthcare profession. It is mandatory to qualify for the first pre-clinical phase of the degree to enter the second phase.

Para-Clinical: The next phase of the degree program is a thepara-clinical level which runs for 3 semesters. The subjects taught at this level include Community Medicine, Forensic Medicine, Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Clinical postings, OPDs, etc.

Clinical: The final academic portion of the MBBS syllabus comprises the clinical phase. This level stretches from the 5th to 9th semester where the core focus is placed on studying the specializations in both medicine and surgery. The MBBS syllabus taught in the clinical phase consists of medicine-allied subjects like Psychiatry, Dermatology, Obstetrics, Gynaecology, and Paediatrics. Apart from these, it also includes Surgery allied subjects like anesthesiology, ENT, Ophthalmology, and Orthopedics. 

MBBS Course Structure

The duration of MBBS is 5.5 years in India which is divided into 9 semesters of 6 months each followed by an Internship or Professional Training of 12 months in India. The MBBS course structure abroad can vary to a great extent as per the country you choose. Get in touch with Leverage Edu experts to check the country-wise MBBS course structure. Let us explore the MBBS course structure in India: 

Pre Clinical Semester 1 – 2Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology
Para ClinicalSemester 3 – 5Community Medicine, Forensic Medicine, Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Clinical postings, OPDs
ClinicalSemester 6 – 9 Community medicine and allied subjects (Psychiatry, Dermatology), Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Surgery, and allied subjects, Clinical postings

12 months Rotatory Internship

The clinical phase marks the end of the theoretical aspect of the degree and is followed by the mandatory internship program. It provides a platform for students to put their learned skills into practice. The internship period lasts for one year at the end of which the MBBS degree is awarded to the students. Under the guidance of your supervisor, you are apprenticed to a senior doctor in a hospital where you learn practical concepts on several specializations like Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Gynaecology, etc. MBBS subjects that are a part of the Internship Schedule are given below: 

Subject NameDuration
Medicine1.5 Months
Ophthalmology15 Days
Surgery1.5 Months
Anaesthesiology15 Days
Pediatrics1 Month
Obstetrics and Gynaecology1 Month
Rural3 Months
Casualty1 Month
Elective 2 Months

The course structure and topics are subject to change from university to university.

Do Refer: MBBS Admission Process

MBBS Subjects [Topic-Wise List]

The MBBS syllabus includes an array of subjects that not only strengthen the basic knowledge about different medical courses but also provide training in ethical practices. Listed below are some of the essential subjects taught in one of the most popular Medical Science courses:

MBBS Phase I Syllabus

BiochemistryBiological cells, Biomolecules, Enzymes, Metabolic pathways, their regulation, and metabolic interrelationships, Food assimilation, and nutrition, Hormones, Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Environmental biochemistry.
AnatomyMicroanatomy, Gross anatomy, Embryology, and Genetics, Neuroanatomy
PhysiologyGeneral Physiology, Nerve–Muscle, Blood, Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Gastrointestinal System, Nutrition, Environmental Physiology, Reproduction, Kidney, Neurophysiology, Yoga

MBBS Phase II Syllabus

Community MedicineIneffective dermatoses, Infective dermatoses, Infestations, Melanin synthesis, Allergic disorders, Drug eruptions, urticaria, erythema multi-forme, Vesiculo-bullous diseases, Epidermopoisis, Psoriasis, Pathogenesis, Syphilis, Gonococcal and Non-gonococcal infections, HIV infection, Dermatological Emergencies
Forensic Medicine& ToxicologyForensic Medicine, Toxicology
PathologyGeneral Pathology, Systemic Pathology, Practical
PharmacologyGeneral Pharmacology, Autonomic nervous system &The peripheral nervous system, Central nervous system, Autacoids, Cardiovascular system, Gastrointestinal and respiratory system, Hormones, Chemotherapy, Miscellaneous
MicrobiologyNeck region, Arteries, Veins, Breast, Oesophagus, Stomach and duodenum, Small intestine, Colon and rectum, Appendix, Acute abdomen, Urology, Skin

MBBS Phase III Syllabus

AnesthesiologyPreoperative evaluation & optimization, Skills I/V, Cannulation, Oropharyngeal/Nasopharyngeal Airway insertion, Bag-Mask Ventilation, Attaching pulse oximeter, BP cuff, and ECG electrodes, and setting up a monitor
Dermatology and VenereologyMicrobiology about the eye, Pathology about the eye, Pharmacology about the eye, Disorders of the Lid, Disorders of the Lacrimal Apparatus, Conjunctivitis &Ophthalmia Neonatorum, Trachoma & Other chronic conjunctivitis, Keratitis and corneal ulcers, Corneal ulcer, Scleritis & Episcleritis
MedicineClinical Pharmacology, Nutritional and metabolic disorders, Water, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, Critical care Medicine, Pain management and palliative care, Medical Psychiatry, Poisonings, Specific environmental and occupational hazards, Immune response and Infections, Cardiovascular system
Obstetrics and GynaecologyBasic Sciences, Obstetrics, Gynaecology, Contraception, Neonatology and Recent Advances
OrthopedicsPediatric orthopedics, Orthopaedic Oncology, Management of Trauma, Sports Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Orthopedic Neurology, Disorders of Spine, Radiology, Fracture
Bacteriology, Bacterial Staining, and Cultivation, common for Bacterial identification, parasitology, Virology, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infection, Mycology, Common Laboratory Methods for Diagnosis of Fungal Infections, Collection of Transport of Samples, Host-Parasite relationship, Bacterial, and Viral Genetics, Immunity to infection, Immunodiagnosis, Vaccines, Sterilisation, and disinfection, Bacteriology of water and air, Microorganisms associated with gastrointestinal infections, Gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites, MicrobiologyVital statistics, Growth and development, Nutrition, Immunization, Infectious diseases, Hematology, Respiratory system, Gastro-Intestinal Tract, Central Nervous System, Cardiovascular system, Genito-Urinary System, Neonatology, Pediatrics Emergencies, Fluid-Electrolyte, Genetics, Behavioral Problems, Pediatrics SurgicalProblems, Therapeutics
OtorhinolaryngologyOral cavity and oropharynx, Ear, Instruments, Operative Procedures, X-ray
SurgeryBacteriology, Bacterial Staining, and Cultivation, CommonTests for Bacterial identification, parasitology, Virology, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infection, Mycology, Common Laboratory Methods for Diagnosis of Fungal Infections, Collection of Transport of Samples, Host-Parasite relationship, Bacterial, and Viral Genetics, Immunity to infection, Immunodiagnosis, Vaccines, Sterilisation, and disinfection, Bacteriology of water and air, Microorganisms associated with gastrointestinal infections, Gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites, Microbiology
PsychiatryBehavioural Sciences, Emotion and its application to health, Cognitive process and memory, psychiatric disorders, personality disorders, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorders, Depression, Anxiety neurosis, phobia and OCD Head

These are some of the most popular MBBS specializations:

  • General Medicine
  • General Surgery
  • Paediatrics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Dermatology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics
  • ENT
  • Psychiatry
  • Anesthesiology
  • Plastic Surgery
  • Neuro Surgery
  • Pediatric Surgery
  • Gastroenterology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Hematology
  • Nephrology
  • Cardiology
  • Immunology
  • Craniologist
  • Pathologist

Here is a description of popular MBBS subjects that are an essential part of this course:


Neuroanatomy, Microanatomy, and Genetics all are comprehensively dealt with in the Anatomy course. Here, the student learns about the tissues and organs, their types, and their internal structure, and learns about various relationships among them in the human body. This MBBS course also deals extensively with the central nervous system’s basic composition. Genetic configuration, inheritance, and mutations are some of the other topics.


Genetics is so vast that it deserves a whole course. Cell division, DNA, chromosomes, gene classification, sex determination, abnormalities, birth-related diseases, genital development from conception till birth, and syndromes connected to genetic mutations are all discussed under the head of genetics. Genetical research is still expanding and there is huge scope for students willing to make a career in it.


MBBS students in the subject of biochemistry are primarily taught about cell structure and the components within the cell. It is concerned with the chemical composition and function of biomolecules. It also deals with body enzymes, metabolism, and the molecular makeup of antibodies in the body. Environmental hazards and their effects are also given an introduction.


One of the core subjects of the entire MBBS course, this instructs students on the basic systems of the human body such as the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, reproduction, nerves and muscles, blood, and much more. Practical sessions on blood, nerves, muscles, special senses, etc are conducted to give much-needed insight into how these organs function.

Forensic Medicine

With the integration of medicinal techniques into criminology and forensics, there has emerged a steadily developing and necessary field. Students are taught about death, types of deaths, procedures of medical examination, postmortem technique, and medicolegal aspects of cases. The basic rationale behind this is to help law enforcement with any help related to a case.


Infections and diseases caused by foreign particles are discussed under the head of microbiology. A student learns about types of infections, host-parasite relationship, the transmission of infections, immunity towards a specific infective body, and other important specifics to perform preventive and curative measures.

Also Read: Career in Microbiology


Under pathology, an MBBS student learns in detail about cell injury, cell inflammation and repair, and various diseases and disorders. Starting from common diseases like dysentery and fungal infections, it covers serious and life-threatening conditions like AIDS, rheumatic heart disease, tumours, and herpes. 


This is the study of drug or medicine administration. A doctor needs to be well aware and judge the patient, the disease, dosage, its effects, and side effects before suggesting a particular drug. Here, a student is given training in the selection of a drug, its effects on the body, and how to take into account various patient profiles so that side effects may be minimized. Practicals undertaken are extremely significant in this phase.

Community Medicine

A doctor practices medicine for the treatment and betterment of the community. Towards the community, he must practice with a sense of utmost responsibility and commitment. He must propagate the importance of cleanliness, sanitation, health, and hygiene in the community. He may also collect and study the prevalent conditions of his community and better understand the extent of health hazards.


All MBBS students are provided with a foundational understanding of various surgical procedures and conditions. They are taught about when surgical conditions become necessary, tests to be carried out before operations, and how to deal with complex situations involving pregnancy, haemorrhages, severe burns, septic shocks, etc.

Must Read: MBBS Abroad Consultants

MBBS Books

MBBS is a comprehensive course and you need different books for each subject. Let’s see some of the important books that can help you during your education in MBBS:

Top Colleges Offering MBBS Subjects

Here is the detailed list of colleges that ranks as the best colleges for MBBS in India

  1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)
  2. CMC Vellore
  3. Muzaffarnagar Medical College
  4. JIPMER Pondicherry
  5. Jamia Hamdard
  6. Dayanand Medical College and Hospital
  7. Banaras Hindu University

Also Read: Is MBA after MBBS a good option?


How many subjects are there in MBBS?

There are various subjects in MBBS such as Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Forensic Medicine, Genetics, Community Medicine, etc. The course structure followed in MBBS includes three phases: Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical.

Is MBBS difficult?

Yes, MBBS is one of the toughest courses in the world.

What are the subjects in first-year MBBS?

Subjects like Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry are taught in the first year of MBBS in India.

Is there Physics in MBBS?

Yes, Physics is a vital part of MBBS in India along with Biology and Chemistry.

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Hope this blog helped you to acquire all the necessary information regarding the MBBS subjects if you also want to become a medical doctor  and are confused about how to proceed get in touch with experts at Leverage Edu who will not only help you to prepare for this prestigious exam but also will help you to find the right university where you can make your dream come true

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    1. Hi Abubakar!

      We wholeheartedly agree with your comment. MBBS is an excellent and noble course to pursue. It is also one of the toughest courses in the world.