Learn About the Branches of Biology

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branches of biology

Biology is one of the three main disciplines of the Science stream after Physics and Chemistry which studies life and living organisms. It is the natural science that explores the physical structure, molecular interactions, chemical composition, development, physiological mechanism, and evolution of living matter. There is a wide range of specialized fields in Biology. However, all the branches of Biology study an essential element, i.e. cells which are the smallest fundamental unit of life. Composed of many branches or disciplines, it is considered one of the most complex disciplines to study. However, since it encompasses the concepts of a wide range of sub-fields, the scope of biology as a career is very vast. Read this blog to learn about various branches of biology and their scope in the growing world.

The branch of biology which is concerned with the interrelationship between plants and animals is called Ecology.

Also Read: Branches of Chemistry

What is Biology?

Biology is a field of study that examines living things and their essential functions. Botany, conservation, ecology, evolution, genetics, marine biology, medicine, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology are just a few of the many disciplines that make up biology.

Also Read: Branches of Physics

Branches of Biology from A to Z

Branches of Biology

Anatomy: Study of the structure of living things and their parts
Astrobiology: Study of the living universe

Biotechnology: Study of technology related to biology
Botany: Scientific study of plants
Biochemistry: Study of chemical processes within or related to living organisms
Biophysics: Study of physical processes and phenomena in living organisms
Bionics: Study of mechanical systems that work like living things or as part of a living organism
Bioinformatics: Study of interpreting biological information through computer science

Cell Biology: Study of cell structure and functions
Chemical Biology: Study of the use of chemistry to solve biological problems
Computational Biology: Study of using biological information to develop algorithms to comprehend biological systems
Conservation Biology: Study of environmental conservation and biodiversity on the earth
Chronobiology: Study of effects of time on biological events as well as internal biological rhythms and clocks

Developmental Biology: Study of the growth and development processes of plants and animals

Evolutionary Biology: Study of evolutionary processes and diversification and adaptation of life over time
Ecology: Study of how organisms and how interact with the environment around them
Environmental Biology: Study of evolution, habitats and adaptations of living organisms

Genetics: Study of genes, genetic variation and heredity in living beings
Geobiology: Study of how physical, chemical and biological processes influence each other in natural habitats
Gerontology: Study of ageing, its physical, mental, social, psychological and cultural effects, etc.

Human Biology: Study of human species, their evolution, genetics, heredity, anatomy and other aspects
Human Genetics: Study of the human genome and transmission of genes from one generation to another

Immunology: Study of the immune system in all organisms

Lichenology: Study of Lichens

Marine Biology: Study of marine organisms and marine life
Mycology: Study of fungi
Microbiology: Study of microorganisms, i.e. minute life-forms
Molecular Biology: Study of chemical structures and biological processes of molecules

Neurobiology: Study of nervous systems and cell functions
Nutrition Science: Study of food, its nutrients and their effects on health and diseases

Pathology: Study of disease or injury
Physiology: Study of how the human body functions
Paleobiology: Study of applied life science biology on the earth science palaeontology
Phycology: Study of algae
Parasitology: Study of parasites, their hosts and their relationships
Plant Physiology: Study of plant function and behaviour, in terms of their inner structures and functions
Photobiology: Study of beneficial or bad impact of light on living organisms

Radiobiology: Study of ionizing radiation and its interactions with human beings

Structural Biology: Study of the structure of biological molecules
Soil Biology: Study of living organisms in the soil
Systems Biology: Study of biological systems

Taxonomy: Study of naming, classifying, arranging, and describing living organisms

Virology: Study of viruses as well as virus diseases

Study of the plant kingdom

Name the branch of zoology that deals with the study of fishes.
Ichthyology is the study of fishes. Know more about Branches of Zoology here!

25 Branches of Biology

Here are the major 25 branches of biology:

  1. Anatomy
  2. Botany
  3. Taxonomy
  4. Zoology
  5. Microbiology
  6. Mycology
  7. Phycology
  8. Parasitology
  9. Virology
  10. Physiology
  11. Theoretical Biology
  12. Cell Biology
  13. Genetics
  14. Ecology
  15. Evolution
  16. Biochemistry
  17. Biophysics
  18. Molecular Biology
  19. Structural Biology
  20. Biotechnology
  21. Plant Physiology
  22. Immunology
  23. Marine Biology
  24. Photobiology
  25. Radiobiology

Also Read: How to Become a Geneticist?

Credits: Alamy

Anatomy is one of the main branches of biology that allows an individual to understand the structure and the parts of organisms including animals, human beings, and living organisms. Moreover, it investigates how a living body adapts and maintains balance with the physical environment and human health.

Credits: Pinterest

Botany is another major branch of biology to scientifically studies plants, their structure, histology, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Moreover, the course covers the economic importance of various ecosystems and the impact of plants on the environment. After 12th, you can pursue BSc in Botany to start a career in this field.

Credits: Earth.com

It is one of the most important branches of Biology that deals with categorising and naming different organisms based on their characteristics.

Credits: Liberal arts colleges

Zoology is one of the essential branches of Biology which is concerned with the study of animal behaviour, physiology, structure, classification, and distribution. The best courses to pursue in this field are BSc followed by MSc Zoology.


Microbiology is the study of life and actions of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, etc. Through Microbiology courses you will get to understand their metabolism and growth in a detailed way.


Mycology is the scientific study and research of fungi. Fungi are a group of multicellular organisms that cannot make their food and play a major role in nutrient cycling in an ecosystem.

Credits: Parkwalk Advisors

Phycology is the scientific study of algae which is known as a diverse group of aquatic living beings who can perform photosynthesis.

Credits: Frontiers

Parasitology is one of the branches of Biology and Medicine that works to understand parasitic organisms that live and feed on the host.


Virology is the most common branch of Biology that deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases.


Physiology is one of the lesser-known branches of Biology that studies the normal functions of various parts of living organisms.

Theoretical Biology

Theoretical Biology or Mathematical Biology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research with applications in medicine, biology, and biotechnology and is a lucrative option when considering the branches of Biology. 

Cell Biology

Cell Biology talks about the structure and function of the cell and the study revolves around the basic concept of biology that the cell is the fundamental unit of life.


Genetics is described as the study of genes, genetic variations, and principles of heredity in living organisms. You will also be introduced to the concept of molecular genetics and genetic mapping which are important when it comes to the branches of Biology.


Ecology deals with the study of the interaction of living organisms such as plants, animals including humans and microbial populations with one another and their physical environment.


Evolution is the study of heritable changes and diversification in different kinds of organisms over multiple generations. 


Biochemistry is the intersection of biology and chemistry that studies various chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within the living body. This subject is best suited for students who are planning to work in medical and pharmacological fields.


Biophysics deals with the application of the laws of physics to biological occurrences or phenomena.

Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology is the discipline of biology that deals with the structure of proteins and nucleic acids and their functions.

Structural Biology

Structural Biology is the branch of biochemistry, biophysics, and microbiology that allows individuals to study the molecular structure of biological macromolecules.


Biotechnology refers to the exploitation of biological processes such as microorganism genetic manipulation for the production of hormones, antibodies, and industrially relevant products.

Plant Physiology

Plant Physiology is the sub-discipline of Botany that deals with the physiology and functioning of plants.


Immunology is one of the branches of biology and medicine concerned with immunity. Individuals learn immunology mechanisms like finer points of tissue transplantation and cancers. Also, immunology works on exploring the causes of autoimmunity responses. 

Marine Biology

Marine Biology involves the scientific study of the behaviour and interactions of life forms and marine creatures with the oceans, seas, and other forms of the marine environment.


Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of living organisms with light including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.


Radiobiology involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living beings and their health effects.

The branch of biology that deals with the study of cells are Cell Biology or Cellular Biology.

All Branches of Biology

Following is the list of all branches of biology:

ScienceOrganized form of Knowledge or systematic knowledge i.e. knowledge through the process
BiologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of living beings
ZoologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of animals
MorphologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of total general structures and forms including shape, size and appearance
AnatomyThe branch of science which deals with the study of internal structures after cutting or dissection
HistologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of tissue i.e. microscopic anatomy
CytologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of cells and their organelles
AcarologyStudy of tics and mites
ActinobiologyThe branch of science which deals with the study of radiation effects on an organism
AerobiologyThis branch deals with the form of land use on which herbaceous crops and tree crops are cultivated
AgroforestryThe science that deals with crop plants
AgronomyThe science that deals with the study of blood blood-vascular system
AgrostologyStudy of grasses
AnthologyStudy of flowers
AnthropologyStudy of apes and man
ApicultureStudy of beekeeping
AraneologyStudy of spiders
ArthrologyStudy of joints
AschelitinthologyStudy of roundworms
BacteriologyStudy of bacteria
BatrachologyStudy of frog
BiochemistryBranch of science that deals with the study of chemical reactions in relation to life activities
BiometricsStatistical analysis of different results of biological experiments
BiotechnologyUse of biological organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines and hormones etc. On a large scale and at a reasonable cost.
BryologyStudy of Bryophytes
CarcinologyStudy of crabs and crustaceans
CardiologyStudy of heart
ChondriologyStudy of Cartilage
ChromatologyStudy of Pigments
CardiologyStudy of Coelenterata
ConchologyStudy of shells
CraniologyStudy of skulls
DendrologyStudy of shrubs and trees
DermatologyStudy of skin
Study of effects on life at very low temperatureStudy of problems of existence of life in outer space
EcologyStudy of the relationship between organisms and the environment
EmbryologyStudy of embryo i.e. developmental stages after fertilization or birth of young ones
EndocrinologyStudy of endocrine glands and their secretions
EntomologyStudy of insects
EnzymologyStudy of enzymes
EthnologyStudy of man-kinds
AetiologyStudy of conditions of animals or behaviour of animals, in a natural contest
Study of molluscsStudy of diseases
EugenicsStudy of improvement of the human race by applying laws of heredity. It is applied before birth. Eugenics is related to future generation
EuphenicsStudy of improvement of the human race by drug treatment or gene engineering i.e. medical engineering of a genetic disorder
EuthenicsStudy of improvement of the human race by improving the environment. It applied after birth and is related to the present generation
EvolutionThe branch of science that deals with the study of the origin of new from old i.e. origin, variation, inter-relationship between organisms of past and present days
ExobiologySpace biology is also known as exobiology
FloricultureStudy of flower-yielding plants
GeneticsStudy of heredity and variations
GerontologyStudy of growing old
GynaecologyStudy of female reproductive organs
HaematologyStudy of blood
HelminthologyStudy of helminths
HepatologyStudy of liver
HerpetologyStudy of lizards and other reptiles
HypnologyStudy which deals with sleep
HistochemistryStudy of the chemical nature of tissues
HorticultureStudy of flowering and fruits plants
IchnologyStudy of fossil footprints
ImmunologyStudy of resistance of organisms against infection
KalologyStudy of sensory or sensory-emotional values sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste
KaryologyStudy of nucleus
LepidopterologyStudy of moths and butterflies
LichenologyStudy of lichens
LimnologyStudy of freshwater lakes, ponds and streams in relation to plants and animals
MalacologyStudy of the development of organs under embryology
MammologyStudy of mammals
MastologyStudy of breasts
MelanologyStudy of pigments
Molecular BiologyStudy of life sciences on the molecular level (i.e. RNA and DNA level)
MycologyStudy of fungi
MyrmecologyStudy of ants
NeonatologyStudy of the new-born up to 1 month of age
NephrologyStudy of kidney
NeurologyStudy of the nervous system
NidologyStudy of nests of birds
NisologyStudy of diseases
OdontologyStudy of teeth and gums
OlericultureStudy of vegetable-yielding plants
OncologyStudy of cancer
OneirologyStudy of dreams
OntogenyStudy of embryonic history
OphthalmologyStudy of eyes
OrganocologyStudy of the egg of birds
OrganologyStudy of organs
OrnithologyStudy of birds
OsteologyStudy of bones
OtorhinolaryngologyStudy of ear, nose and throat
PaedologyStudy of larval stages
PalaezoologyStudy of fossils and their distribution in time.
PalaeozoologyStudy of fossils of animals
PalynologyStudy of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution
ParasitologyStudy of parasites
PathologyStudy of various diseases in human beings
ParazoologyStudy of poifera (sponges)
PedologyStudy of soils
PharmacognosyBranch of science dealing with the medicinal plants
PharmacologyStudy of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms
PhenologyStudy of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. of bird migration, the opening of flowers etc.
PhrenologyStudy of mental faculties of the brain including feelings
Phycology (algology)Study of algae
PhylogenyStudy of evolutionary history
PhysiologyStudy of functions of various parts within the organisms
PiscicultureStudy of rearing of fishes
PlatyhelminthologyStudy of flatworms
PomologyStudy of fruits
PoultryStudy which deals with the keeping foul
ProctologyStudy of hindgut including rectum and anus
ProtistologyStudy of protests. Its field of study overlaps with more traditional disciplines of algology, mycology and protozoology
PteridologyStudy of pteridophytes
RainologyStudy of the nose and olfactory organs
SaurologyStudy of lizards
SericultureStudy of plant distribution on earth
The silk industry is concerned with the culture of silk moth and pupaStudy of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood
Serpentology (Ophiology)Study of snakes
SilvicultureStudy of the development of forests
SitologyStudy of dietetics
SpeciologyStudy of species
SpermologyStudy of seeds
SplanchnologyStudy of visceral organs
StomatologyStudy of forgetting including buccal cavity and stomach
SynecologyStudy of bony joints and ligaments
Taxi dermatologyStudy of skin and stuffing
TaxonomyThe breach of science which deals with the study of the classification of organisms
TeratologyStudy of foetal malformations
TorpedologyStudy of skates and rays
ToxicologyStudy of narcotics and the influence of narcotics on various organisms
TraumatologyStudy of wounds and turnover
TrichologyStudy of hair
TrophologyStudy of nutrition
UrobiologyStudy which deals with the preservation of deals bodies in liquids by chemicals
UrologyStudy of wine including diseases and the abnormalities of the urinary and urinogenital tract
VirologyStudy of virus
ZoogeographyThe branch of science which deals with the study of the distribution of animals on earth
BiophysicsStudy of physical aspects of living organisms
CytogeneticsStudy of the cytological basis of inheritance
CtetologyStudy of acquired characteristics of organisms
IchthyologyStudy of fish and its culture
KinesiologyStudy of muscle movements
PhytogeographyStudy of structural organization of the body
PalaeobotanyStudy of distribution and characteristics of fossils
PsychobiologyStudy of behavioural aspects of animals
SarcologyStudy of muscles
SyndesmologyStudy of bone joints and ligaments
TectologyStudy of structural organization of body
ZoophytologyStudy of drifting micro-organisms such as diatoms.

Branches of Biology and Their Fathers 

Branches of biology
Credits: Bioscience.com

Here are the different branches of Biology and their fathers:

Branches of BiologyFathers 
PalaeontologyLeonardo di Vinci
ImmunologyEdward Jenner
MicrobiologyAntonie Van Leeuwenhoek
TaxonomyCarl Linnaeus
HistologyMarie François Xavier Bichat
Indian MycologyEdwin John Butler
Modern BotanyLinnaeus
Indian EcologyRamdeo Misra
Indian PhycologyParthasarthy Iyengar
BacteriologyLouis Pasteur
Plant PhysiologyStephen Hales
Botanical IllustrationsKrateuas
Mutation TheoryHugo de Vries
Modern GeneticsThomas Hunt Morgan
CytologyRobert Hooke
Modern EmbryologyKarl Ernst von Baer

Why Study Different Branches of Biology?

Biology is a study of life and various life forms providing deep scientific knowledge of how all living and nonliving beings interact with each other in an environment. Specialization in the field of Biology will thus help you understand the concepts related to the sustainability of life, food quality, causes of illness, environment, and ecosystem, development of medicines, etc. Let us understand some of the key reasons to opt for branches of biology as a career:

  • It helps you understand the changes in human bodies, their physical appearances, and various metabolic reactions within the body.
  • From Botany and Anatomy to Biotechnology and Genetics, it provides diversity in careers.
  • Large-scale problems like the existence of pollution, increasing population, growth of infections and diseases, food supply shortage, etc. can be studied and solutions can be discovered using the application of various branches of biology.
  • Creates a path for scientific investigations thus enhancing your chance of establishing a flourishing career in Research.
  • Encourages the concepts of basic living. It coaches individuals to plant trees in order to create a healthy environment. With knowledge about the temperature of the human body, you can build shelters effectively.

Careers in Biology

Whether you’re interested in studying animals, educating families about birth defects or designing medical devices, various branches of Biology will present themselves as areas of interest to explore. The diverse scope of Biology allows professionals to make an enormous number of scientific contributions. Below is a list of job opportunities for enthusiasts and experts in Biology:

  • Biochemists and Biophysicists
  • Bioinformatics Scientists
  • Geoscientists
  • Conservation Scientists and Foresters
  • Environmental Specialists and Scientists
  • Microbiologists
  • Biomedical Engineers
  • Biological Science Teachers
  • Genetic Counselors
  • Veterinarians
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
  • Biological Technicians
  • Chemical Technicians
  • Forensic Science Technicians
  • Medical Laboratory Technologists

Below is a list of universities and colleges offering courses for life science and Biology studies:

UniversityCountryQS WU Ranking  2023
Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA1
Stanford UniversityUSA3
Harvard UniversityUSA5
Yale UniversityUSA18
University of California – BerkeleyUSA27
Johns Hopkins UniversityUS24
University of AlbertaCanada110
University of QueenslandAustralia=50
La Trobe UniversityAustralia316
Newcastle UniversityUnited Kingdom112
University of British ColumbiaCanada47
Massey UniversityNew Zealand292

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What are the popular courses in Biology?

Some of the popular Biology courses are Microbiology, Biotechnology, Zoology, Environmental Science, Marine Biology, Botany, Human Biology, etc.

Who is the father of biology?

Aristotle is regarded as the Father of Biology.

What is the study of cells called?

The study of cells is called Cytology. It is a branch of Biology that studies the functions and structures of cells.

Is there any scope in Biology?

Some of the popular Biology professions include Biologist, R&D Scientist, Ecologist, Forensic Scientist, Pharmaceutical Marketing, Teacher, etc.

Are you interested to learn more about the vast world of biology? Then taking up a course from various branches of biology can benefit you in a huge way. Experts at Leverage Edu can help you identify the right course in Biology that aligns with your interests thus assisting you in taking the first step towards your dream career. Call us immediately at 1800 57 2000 for a free 30-minute counselling session.

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  1. Am about write my waec ,am searching for a course that best suits me and also can be a good benefit to me in terms of career
    Am not good in physics ,am average in chemistry
    Also average in biology
    I love biology

  2. Already Existing Unknown World around of me reveals( Discovered) infront of us through your blog. How iam thanks to you. There is no words enough except very very thanks to your efforts