Branches of Biology

Branches of Biology

Biology, a natural science domain, is concerned with the study of human beings, animals, plants, microorganisms, etc. Composed of many branches or disciplines, it is considered as one of the most complex disciplines to study. However, since it encompasses the concepts of a wide range of sub-fields, the scope of biology as a career is very vast. Through this blog, you will learn about various branches of biology and their scope in the growing world.

What is Biology?

Biology is one of the three main disciplines of Science stream after Physics and Chemistry which studies life and living organisms. It is the natural science that explores the physical structure, molecular interactions, chemical composition, development, physiological mechanism, and evolution of living matter. There is a wide range of specialized fields in Biology. However, all the branches of Biology study an essential element, i.e. cells which are the smallest fundamental unit of life. Cells along with this genetic information make up the composition and structure of living things. Moreover, our collective understanding of the field of Biology has rapidly increased since the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953.

Why Study Different Branches of Biology?

Biology is a study about life and various life forms providing deep scientific knowledge of how all living and nonliving beings interact with each other in an environment. Specialization in the field of Biology will thus help you understand the concepts related to the sustainability of life, food quality, causes of illness, environment, and ecosystem, development of medicines, etc. Let us understand some of the key reasons to opt for branches of biology as a career.

  • It helps you understand the changes in human bodies, their physical appearances, and various metabolic reactions within the body.
  • From Botany and Anatomy to Biotechnology and Genetics, it provides diversity in career.
  • Large-scale problems like the existence of pollution, increasing population, growth of infections and diseases, food supply shortage, etc. can be studied and solutions can be discovered using the application of various branches of biology.
  • Creates a path for scientific investigations thus enhancing your chance of establishing a flourishing career in Research.
  • Encourages the concepts of basic living. It coaches individuals to plant trees in order to create a healthy environment. With knowledge about the temperature of the human body, you can build shelters effectively.

List of Different Branches of Biology

Branches of Biology
Branches of Biology

Now that you are familiar with the reasons why understanding different branches is important and how it can help you establish a career, here are the 25 branches of Biology:

  1. Anatomy
  2. Botany
  3. Taxonomy
  4. Zoology
  5. Microbiology
  6. Mycology
  7. Phycology
  8. Parasitology
  9. Virology
  10. Physiology
  11. Theoretical Biology
  12. Cell Biology
  13. Genetics
  14. Ecology
  15. Evolution
  16. Biochemistry
  17. Biophysics
  18. Molecular Biology
  19. Structural Biology
  20. Biotechnology
  21. Plant Physiology
  22. Immunology
  23. Marine Biology
  24. Photobiology
  25. Radiobiology

Anatomy is one of the main branches of biology that allows an individual to understand the structure and the parts of organisms including animals, human beings, and living organisms. Moreover, it investigates how a living body adapts and maintains balance with the physical environment and human health.


Botany is another major branch of biology to scientifically study plants, their structure, histology, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Moreover, the course covers the economic importance of various ecosystems and the impact of plants on the environment. After 12th, you can pursue BSc Botany to start a career in this field.


It is one of the most important branches of Biology that deals with categorising and naming different organisms based on their characteristics.


Zoology is one of the essential branches of Biology which is concerned with the study of animal behavior, physiology, structure, classification, and distribution. The best courses to pursue in this field are BSc followed by MSc Zoology.


Microbiology is the study of life and actions of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, etc. Through Microbiology courses you will get to understand their metabolism and growth in a detailed way.


Mycology is the scientific study and research of fungi. Fungi are a group of multicellular organisms that cannot make their own food and play a major role in nutrient cycling in an ecosystem.


Phycology is the scientific study of algae which is known as a diverse group of aquatic living beings who have the ability to perform photosynthesis.


Parasitology is one of the branches of Biology and Medicine that works to understand parasitic organisms that live and feed on the host.


Virology is the most common branches of Biology which deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases.


Physiology is one of the lesser-known branches of Biology that studies the normal functions of various parts of the living organisms.

Theoretical Biology

Theoretical Biology or Mathematical Biology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research with applications in medicine, biology, and biotechnology and a lucrative option when considering the branches of Biology. 

Cell Biology

Cell Biology talks about the structure and function of the cell and the study revolves around the basic concept of biology that cell is the fundamental unit of life.


Genetics is described as the study of genes, genetic variations, and principles of heredity in living organisms. You will also be introduced to the concept of molecular genetics and genetic mapping that are important when it comes to the branches of Biology.


Ecology deals with the study of the interaction of living organisms such as plants, animals including humans and microbial population with one another and their physical environment.


Evolution is the study of heritable changes and diversification in different kinds of organisms over multiple generations. 


Biochemistry is the intersection of biology and chemistry that studies various chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within the living body. This subject is best suited for students who are planning to work in medical and pharmacological fields.


Biophysics deals with the application of the laws of physics to biological occurrences or phenomena.

Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology is the discipline of biology that deals with the structure of proteins and nucleic acids and their functions.

Structural Biology

Structural Biology is the branch of biochemistry, biophysics, and microbiology that allows individuals to study the molecular structure of biological macromolecules.


Biotechnology refers to the exploitation of biological processes such as microorganism genetic manipulation for the production of hormones, antibodies, and industrially relevant products.

Plant Physiology

Plant Physiology is the sub-discipline of Botany that deals with the physiology and functioning of plants.


Immunology is one of the branches of biology and medicine concerned with immunity. Individuals learn immunology mechanisms like finer points of tissue transplantation and cancers. Also, immunology works on exploring the causes of autoimmunity responses. 

Marine Biology

Marine Biology involves the scientific study of the behavior and interactions of life forms and marine creatures with the oceans, seas, and other forms of the marine environment.


Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of living organisms with light including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.


Radiobiology involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living beings and their health effects.

Branches of Biology and Their Fathers 

Here are the different branches of Biology and their fathers:

Branches of BiologyFathers 
PaleontologyLeonardo di Vinci
ImmunologyEdward Jenner
MicrobiologyAntonie Van Leeuwenhoek
TaxonomyCarl Linnaeus
HistologyMarie François Xavier Bichat
Indian MycologyEdwin John Butler
Modern BotanyLinnaeus
Indian EcologyRamdeo Misra
Indian PhycologyParthasarthy Iyengar
BacteriologyLouis Pasteur
Plant PhysiologyStephen Hales
Botanical IllustrationsKrateuas
Mutation TheoryHugo de Vries
Modern GeneticsThomas Hunt Morgan
CytologyRobert Hooke
Modern EmbryologyKarl Ernst von Baer

Career Scope of Branches of Biology

Whether you’re interested in studying animals, educating families about birth defects or designing medical devices, various branches of Biology will present themselves as areas of interest to explore. The diverse scope of Biology allows professionals to make an enormous number of scientific contributions. Below is a list of job opportunities for enthusiasts and experts in Biology:

  • Biochemists and Biophysicists
  • Bioinformatics Scientists
  • Geoscientists
  • Conservation Scientists and Foresters
  • Environmental Specialists and Scientists
  • Microbiologists
  • Biomedical Engineers
  • Biological Science Teachers
  • Genetic Counselors
  • Veterinarians
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
  • Biological Technicians
  • Chemical Technicians
  • Forensic Science Technicians
  • Medical Laboratory Technologists

Below is a list of universities and colleges offering courses for life science and Biology studies:

Are you interested to learn more about the vast world of biology? Then taking up a course from various branches of biology can benefit you in a huge way. Experts at Leverage Edu can help you identify the right course in Biology that aligns with your interests thus assisting you in taking the first step towards your dream career.

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