Biology is one of the three main disciplines of Science stream after Physics and Chemistry which studies life and living organisms. It is the natural science that explores the physical structure, molecular interactions, chemical composition, development, physiological mechanism, and evolution of living matter. There is a wide range of specialized fields in Biology. However, all the branches of Biology study an essential element, i.e. cells which are the smallest fundamental unit of life. Composed of many branches or disciplines, it is considered as one of the most complex disciplines to study. However, since it encompasses the concepts of a wide range of sub-fields, the scope of biology as a career is very vast. Through this blog, you will learn about various branches of biology and their scope in the growing world.
This Blog Includes:
The branch of biology which is concerned with the interrelationship between plants and animals is called Ecology.
Branches of Biology from A to Z
There are mainly three branches of Biology- botany, zoology and microbiology.
Anatomy: Study of the structure of living things and their parts
Astrobiology: Study of the living universe
Biotechnology: Study of technology related to biology
Botany: Scientific study of plants
Biochemistry: Study of chemical processes within or related to living organisms
Biophysics: Study of physical processes and phenomena in living organisms
Bionics: Study of mechanical systems that work like living things or as part of a living organism
Bioinformatics: Study of interpreting biological information through computer science
Cell Biology: Study of cell structure and functions
Chemical Biology: Study of the use of chemistry to solve biological problems
Computational Biology: Study of using biological information to develop algorithms to comprehend biological systems
Conservation Biology: Study of environmental conservation and biodiversity on the earth
Chronobiology: Study of effects of time on biological events as well as internal biological rhythms and clocks
Developmental Biology: Study of the growth and development processes of plants and animals
Evolutionary Biology: Study of evolutionary processes and diversification and adaptation of life over time
Ecology: Study of how organisms and how they interact with the environment around them
Environmental Biology: Study of evolution, habitats and adaptations of living organisms
Genetics: Study of genes, genetic variation and heredity in living beings
Geobiology: Study of how physical, chemical and biological processes influence each other in natural habitats
Gerontology: Study of ageing, its physical, mental, social, psychological and cultural effects, etc.
Human Biology: Study of human species, their evolution, genetics, heredity, anatomy and other aspects
Human Genetics: Study of the human genome and transmission of genes from one generation to another
Immunology: Study of the immune system in all organisms
Lichenology: Study of Lichens
Marine Biology: Study of marine organisms and marine life
Mycology: Study of fungi
Microbiology: Study of microorganisms, i.e. minute life-forms
Molecular Biology: Study of chemical structures and biological processes of molecules
Neurobiology: Study of nervous systems and cell functions
Nutrition Science: Study of food, its nutrients and their effects on health and diseases
Pathology: Study of disease or injury
Physiology: Study of how the human body functions
Paleobiology: Study of applied life science biology on the earth science paleontology
Phycology: Study of algae
Parasitology: Study of parasites, their hosts and their relationships
Plant Physiology: Study of plant function and behaviour, in terms of their inner structures and functions
Photobiology: Study of beneficial or bad impact of light on living organisms
Radiobiology: Study of ionizing radiation and its interactions with human beings
Structural Biology: Study of structure of biological molecules
Soil Biology: Study of living organisms in the soil
Systems Biology: Study of biological systems
Taxonomy: Study of naming, classifying, arranging, describing living organisms
Virology: Study of viruses as well as virus diseases
Zoology: Study of plant kingdom
Name the branch of zoology that deals with the study of fishes.
Ichthyology is the study of fishes. Know more about Branches of Zoology here!
25 Branches of Biology
Here are the major 25 branches of biology:
- Theoretical Biology
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Structural Biology
- Plant Physiology
- Marine Biology
Anatomy is one of the main branches of biology that allows an individual to understand the structure and the parts of organisms including animals, human beings, and living organisms. Moreover, it investigates how a living body adapts and maintains balance with the physical environment and human health.
Botany is another major branch of biology to scientifically study plants, their structure, histology, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Moreover, the course covers the economic importance of various ecosystems and the impact of plants on the environment. After 12th, you can pursue BSc Botany to start a career in this field.
It is one of the most important branches of Biology that deals with categorising and naming different organisms based on their characteristics.
Zoology is one of the essential branches of Biology which is concerned with the study of animal behavior, physiology, structure, classification, and distribution. The best courses to pursue in this field are BSc followed by MSc Zoology.
Microbiology is the study of life and actions of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, etc. Through Microbiology courses you will get to understand their metabolism and growth in a detailed way.
Mycology is the scientific study and research of fungi. Fungi are a group of multicellular organisms that cannot make their own food and play a major role in nutrient cycling in an ecosystem.
Phycology is the scientific study of algae which is known as a diverse group of aquatic living beings who have the ability to perform photosynthesis.
Parasitology is one of the branches of Biology and Medicine that works to understand parasitic organisms that live and feed on the host.
Virology is the most common branches of Biology which deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases.
Physiology is one of the lesser-known branches of Biology that studies the normal functions of various parts of the living organisms.
Theoretical Biology or Mathematical Biology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research with applications in medicine, biology, and biotechnology and a lucrative option when considering the branches of Biology.
Cell Biology talks about the structure and function of the cell and the study revolves around the basic concept of biology that cell is the fundamental unit of life.
Genetics is described as the study of genes, genetic variations, and principles of heredity in living organisms. You will also be introduced to the concept of molecular genetics and genetic mapping that are important when it comes to the branches of Biology.
Ecology deals with the study of the interaction of living organisms such as plants, animals including humans and microbial population with one another and their physical environment.
Evolution is the study of heritable changes and diversification in different kinds of organisms over multiple generations.
Biochemistry is the intersection of biology and chemistry that studies various chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within the living body. This subject is best suited for students who are planning to work in medical and pharmacological fields.
Biophysics deals with the application of the laws of physics to biological occurrences or phenomena.
Molecular Biology is the discipline of biology that deals with the structure of proteins and nucleic acids and their functions.
Structural Biology is the branch of biochemistry, biophysics, and microbiology that allows individuals to study the molecular structure of biological macromolecules.
Biotechnology refers to the exploitation of biological processes such as microorganism genetic manipulation for the production of hormones, antibodies, and industrially relevant products.
Plant Physiology is the sub-discipline of Botany that deals with the physiology and functioning of plants.
Immunology is one of the branches of biology and medicine concerned with immunity. Individuals learn immunology mechanisms like finer points of tissue transplantation and cancers. Also, immunology works on exploring the causes of autoimmunity responses.
Marine Biology involves the scientific study of the behavior and interactions of life forms and marine creatures with the oceans, seas, and other forms of the marine environment.
Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of living organisms with light including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.
Radiobiology involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living beings and their health effects.
The branch of biology which deals with the study of cells is Cell Biology or Cellular Biology.
All Branches of Biology
|Science||Organized form of Knowledge or systematic knowledge i.e. knowledge through the process|
|Biology||The branch of science which deals with the study of living beings|
|Zoology||The branch of science which deals with the study of animals|
|Morphology||The branch of science which deals with the study of total general structures and forms including shape, size and appearance|
|Anatomy||The branch of science which deals with the study of internal structures after cutting or dissection|
|Histology||The branch of science which deals with the study of tissue i.e. microscopic anatomy|
|Cytology||The branch of science which deals with the study of cells and their organelles|
|Acariology||Study of tics and mites|
|Actinobiology||The branch of science which deals with the study of radiation effects on an organism|
|Aerobiology||Study of Flying organisms|
|Agroforestry||This branch deals with form of land used on which herbaceous crops and trees crops are cultivated|
|Agronomy||Science which deals with the crop plants|
|Agrostology||Study of grasses|
|Angiology||Science which deals with the study of blood vascular system|
|Anthology||Study of flowers|
|Anthropology||Study of apes and man|
|Apiculture||Study of bee keeping|
|Araneology||Study of spiders|
|Arthrology||Study of joints|
|Aschelitinthology||Study of round worms|
|Bacteriology||Study of bacteria|
|Batrachology||Study of frog|
|Biochemistry||Branch of science that deals with the study of chemical reactions in relations to life activities|
|Biometrics||Statistical analysis of different results of biological experiments|
|Biotechnology||Use of biological organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines and harmones etc. on a large scale and at reasonable cost.|
|Bryology||Study of Bryophytes|
|Carcinology||Study of crabs and crustaceans|
|Cardiology||Study of heart|
|Chondriology||Study of Cartilage|
|Chromatology||Study of Pigments|
|Cnidology||Study of Coelenterata|
|Conchology||Study of shells|
|Craniology||Study of skulls|
|Cryobiology||Study of effects on life at very lower temperature|
|Dendrology||Study of shrubs and trees|
|Dermatology||Study of skin|
|Ecobiology||Study of problems of existence of life in outer space|
|Ecology||Study of relationship between organism and environment|
|Embryology||Study of embryo i.e. developmental stages after fertilization or birth of young ones|
|Endocrinology||Study of endocrine glands and their secretions|
|Entomology||Study of insects|
|Enzymology||Study of enzymes|
|Ethnology||Study of man-kinds|
|Ethology||Study of conditions of animals or behavior of animals, in a natural contest|
|Etiology||Study of diseases|
|Eugenics||Study of improvement of the human race by applying laws of heredity. It applied before birth. Eugenics is related with future generation|
|Euphenics||Study of improvement of the human race by drug treatment or gene engineering i.e. medical engineering of a genetic disorder|
|Euthenics||Study of improvement of the human race by improving the environment. It applied after birth and is related to the present generation|
|Evolution||The branch of science which deals with the study of origin of new from old i.e. origin, variation, inter-relationship between organisms of past and present days|
|Exobiology||Space biology is also known as exobiology|
|Floriculture||Study of flower yielding plants|
|Genetics||Study of heredity and variations|
|Gerontology||Study of growing old|
|Gynaecology||Study of female reproductive organs|
|Haematology||Study of blood|
|Helminthology||Study of helminthes|
|Hepatology||Study of liver|
|Herpetology||Study of lizards and other reptiles|
|Hypnology||Study which deals with sleep|
|Histochemistry||Study of chemical nature of tissues|
|Horticulture||Study of flowering and fruits plants|
|Ichnology||Study of fossil footprints|
|Immunology||Study of resistance of organisms against infection|
|Kalology||Study of sensory or sensari-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste|
|Karyology||Study of nucleus|
|Lepidopterology||Study of moths and butterflies|
|Lichenology||Study of lichens|
|Limnology||Study of fresh water lakes, ponds and streams in relation with plants and animals|
|Malacology||Study of mollusks|
|Mammology||Study of mammals|
|Mastology||Study of breasts|
|Melanology||Study of pigments|
|Molecular Biology||Study of life sciences on molecular level (i.e. RNA and DNA level)|
|Mycology||Study of fungi|
|Myrmecology||Study of ants|
|Neonatology||Study of the new-born up to 1 month of age|
|Nephrology||Study of kidney|
|Neurology||Study of nervous system|
|Nidology||Study of nests of birds|
|Nisology||Study of diseases|
|Odontology||Study of teeth and gums|
|Olericulture||Study of vegetable yielding plants|
|Oncology||Study of cancer|
|Oneirology||Study of dreams|
|Ontogeny||Study of embryonic history|
|Oology||Study of egg of birds|
|Ophthalmology||Study of eyes|
|Organocology||Study of development of organs under embryology|
|Organology||Study of organs|
|Ornithology||Study of birds|
|Osteology||Study of bones|
|Otorhinolaryngology||Study of ear, nose and throat|
|Paedology||Study of larval stages|
|Palaezoology||Study of fossils and their distribution in time.|
|Palaeozoology||Study of fossils of animals|
|Palynology||Study of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution|
|Parasitology||Study of parasites|
|Pathology||Study of various diseases in human beings|
|Parazoology||Study of poifera (sponges)|
|Pedology||Study of soils|
|Pharmacognosy||Branch of science dealing with the medicinal plants|
|Pharmacology||Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms|
|Phenology||Study of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. of bird migration, opening of flowers etc.|
|Phrenology||Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings|
|Phycology (algology)||Study of algae|
|Phylogeny||Study of evolutionary history|
|Physiology||Study of functions of various parts within the organisms|
|Pisciculture||Study of rearing of fishes|
|Platyhelminthology||Study of flat worms|
|Pomology||Study of fruits|
|Poultry||Study which deals with keepings of foul|
|Proctology||Study of hind gut including rectum and anus|
|Protistology||Study of protests. Its field of study overlaps with more traditional disciplines of algology, mycology and protozoology|
|Pteridology||Study of pteridophytes|
|Rainology||Study of nose and olfactory organs|
|Saurology||Study of lizards|
|Sericulture||Silk industry concerned with culture of silk moth and pupa|
|Serology||Study of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood|
|Sepentology (Ophiology)||Study of snakes|
|Silviculture||Study of development of forests|
|Sitology||Study of dietetics|
|Speciology||Study of species|
|Spermology||Study of seeds|
|Splanchnology||Study of visceral organs|
|Stomatology||Study of forget including buccal cavity and stomach|
|Synecology||Study of bony joints and ligaments|
|Taxi dermatology||Study of skin and stuffing|
|Taxonomy||The breach of science which deals with the study of classification of organisms|
|Teratology||Study of foetal malformations|
|Torpedology||Study of skates and rays|
|Toxicology||Study of narcotics and the influence of narcotics on various organisms|
|Traumatology||Study of wounds and turnover|
|Trichology||Study of hair|
|Trophology||Study of nutrition|
|Urobiology||Study which deals with preservation of deals bodies in liquids by chemicals|
|Urology||Study of wine including diseases and the abnormalities of uninary and urino-genital tract|
|Virology||Study of virus|
|Zoogeography||The branch of science which deals with the study of the distribution of animals on earth|
|Biophysics||Study of physical aspects of living organisms|
|Cytogenetics||Study of cytological basis of inheritance|
|Ctetology||Study of acquired characteristics of organisms|
|Ichthyology||Study of fish and it’s culture|
|Kinesiology||Study of muscle movements|
|Phytogeography||Study of plants distribution on earth|
|Palaeobotany||Study of distribution and characteristics of fossils|
|Psychobiology||Study of behavioural aspects of animals|
|Sarcology||Study of muscles|
|Syndesmology||Study of bone joints and ligaments|
|Tectology||Study of structural organization of body|
|Zoophytology||Study of drifting micro-organisms such as diatoms.|
Branches of Biology and Their Fathers
Here are the different branches of Biology and their fathers:
|Branches of Biology||Fathers|
|Paleontology||Leonardo di Vinci|
|Microbiology||Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek|
|Histology||Marie François Xavier Bichat|
|Indian Mycology||Edwin John Butler|
|Indian Ecology||Ramdeo Misra|
|Indian Phycology||Parthasarthy Iyengar|
|Plant Physiology||Stephen Hales|
|Mutation Theory||Hugo de Vries|
|Modern Genetics||Thomas Hunt Morgan|
|Modern Embryology||Karl Ernst von Baer|
Why Study Different Branches of Biology?
Biology is a study about life and various life forms providing deep scientific knowledge of how all living and nonliving beings interact with each other in an environment. Specialization in the field of Biology will thus help you understand the concepts related to the sustainability of life, food quality, causes of illness, environment, and ecosystem, development of medicines, etc. Let us understand some of the key reasons to opt for branches of biology as a career.
- It helps you understand the changes in human bodies, their physical appearances, and various metabolic reactions within the body.
- From Botany and Anatomy to Biotechnology and Genetics, it provides diversity in career.
- Large-scale problems like the existence of pollution, increasing population, growth of infections and diseases, food supply shortage, etc. can be studied and solutions can be discovered using the application of various branches of biology.
- Creates a path for scientific investigations thus enhancing your chance of establishing a flourishing career in Research.
- Encourages the concepts of basic living. It coaches individuals to plant trees in order to create a healthy environment. With knowledge about the temperature of the human body, you can build shelters effectively.
Careers in Biology
Whether you’re interested in studying animals, educating families about birth defects or designing medical devices, various branches of Biology will present themselves as areas of interest to explore. The diverse scope of Biology allows professionals to make an enormous number of scientific contributions. Below is a list of job opportunities for enthusiasts and experts in Biology:
- Biochemists and Biophysicists
- Bioinformatics Scientists
- Conservation Scientists and Foresters
- Environmental Specialists and Scientists
- Biomedical Engineers
- Biological Science Teachers
- Genetic Counselors
- Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
- Biological Technicians
- Chemical Technicians
- Forensic Science Technicians
- Medical Laboratory Technologists
Popular Universities for Biology
Below is a list of universities and colleges offering courses for life science and Biology studies:
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Stanford University
- Harvard University
- Yale University
- University of California – Berkeley
- Johns Hopkins University
- University of Alberta
- University of Queensland
- La Trobe University
- Newcastle University
- University of British Columbia
- Massey University
Are you interested to learn more about the vast world of biology? Then taking up a course from various branches of biology can benefit you in a huge way. Experts at Leverage Edu can help you identify the right course in Biology that aligns with your interests thus assisting you in taking the first step towards your dream career.