CBSE Biology Syllabus for Class 12

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Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Secondary education serves as the base for higher education. Whether appearing for a Medical entrance examination or UPSC exams, the Biology syllabus for class 12 covers all the basic concepts about Biology necessary for these examinations. Students should have a clear understanding of the syllabus to begin their preparation for the Class 12 board or an equivalent examination and Medical entrance examination like NEET-UG. Having a stronghold on the subject will help you ace your exams but it’s crucial to have a strategic study plan.

Course Structure Class XII

The course structure for Class 12 Biology is a continuum of Class 11 structure. The course structure for 12 is mentioned in the table given below:

Unit Title Number of Periods Marks
VI Reproduction 30 14
VII Genetics and Evolution 40 18
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 30 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 30 10
X Ecology and Environment 30 14
Total 160 70

The current CBSE Biology syllabus for class 12 provides the students with novel concepts along with extended exposure to the contemporary domain of the subject. The curriculum format allows a simple and sequential flow of the concepts that relate the study of Biology to real life through the use of innovation and technology.

Also Read: Branches of Biology

The different units and chapters-wise topics distribution are mentioned in the successive sections of the blog. Keep reading to know more!!

Source: NEET Adda247

UNIT VI Reproduction

This unit of Biology syllabus for Class 12 includes the following chapters:

Chapter – 1 Reproduction in Organisms

Topics of this section are as follows:

  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction: Pre-fertilisation Events – Gametogenesis, Gamete Transfer; Fertilisation; and Post-fertilisation Events – Zygote, Embryogenesis

Chapter – 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Given below are the sub-topics of this topic of Reproduction:

  • Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
  • Pre-fertilisation: Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain; Pistil, Megasporangium and Embryo Sac; and Pollination
  • Double Fertilisation
  • Post-fertilisation: Endosperm, Embryo and Seed
  • Apomixis and Polyembryony

Must Read: Class 11 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter – 3 Human Reproduction

The Human Reproduction section includes the following topics:

  • Male Reproductive System
  • Female Reproductive System
  • Gametogenesis
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Fertilisation and Implantation
  • Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
  • Parturition and Lactation

Chapter – 4 Reproductive Health

This section is the study of the below-mentioned areas:

  • Problems and Strategies
  • Population Explosion and Birth Control
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
  • Infertility

Also Read: Biology Questions

UNIT VII – Genetics and Evolution

This unit of Biology syllabus for Class 12 includes the following chapters:

Chapter – 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

This part of Genetics and Evolution is the study of:

  • Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
  • Inheritance of One Gene: Law of Dominance; and Law of Segregation – Incomplete Dominance and Codominance
  • Inheritance of Two Genes: Law of Independent Assortment; Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance; Linkage and Recombination 
  • Sex Determination: Sex Determination in Humans
  • Mutation
  • Genetic Disorders: Pedigree Analysis, Mendelian Disorders, Chromosomal Disorders, 

Chapter – 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance

This sub-unit of Genetics & Evolution is the study of the following matters:

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Structure of Polynucleotide Chain; and Packaging of DNA Helix
  • Searching for Genetic Material: Transforming Principle; and Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle; DNA versus RNA
  • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
  • Replication: Experimental Proof; and Machinery and Enzymes
  • Transcription: Transcription Unit – Promoter, Structural Gene and Terminator; Types of RNA; and Process of Transcription
  • Genetic Code – Salient Features; Mutations; and tRNA – Adapter Molecule
  • Translation
  • Regulation of Gene Expression: Lac Operon
  • Human Genome Project: Salient Features; and Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA Fingerprinting

Chapter – 7 Evolution

This imperative topic of Evolution is inclusive of:

  • Origin of Life: Big Bang Theory; and Miller’s Experiment
  • Evolution of Life Forms – Theory
  • Evidence for Evolution
  • Adaptive Radiation
  • Mechanism of Evolution
  • Hardy – Weinberg Principle
  • Brief Account of Evolution
  • Origin and Evolution of Man: Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo sapiens

UNIT VIII – Biology and Human Welfare

This unit of Biology syllabus for Class 12 includes the following chapters:

Chapter – 8 Human Health and Disease

Key topics under Human Health and Diseases are:

  • Common Diseases in Humans: Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common Cold, Malaria, Amoebiasis, Ascariasis, Elephantiasis and Ringworms
  • Immunity: Innate Immunity; Acquired Immunity; Active and Passive Immunity; Vaccination and Immunisation; Allergies; Auto Immunity; and Immune System in Body
  • Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV); and Prevention of AIDS
  • Cancer: Cause; Detection and Diagnosis; and Treatment 
  • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse: Opioids and Cannabinoids; Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse; Addiction and Dependence; Effect of Drug/Alcohol Abuse; Prevention and Control

Chapter – 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

This topic includes the study of the below-mentioned domains:

  • Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals – Dairy Farm Management and Poultry Farm Management; Animal Breeding; Bee-keeping (Apiculture); and Fisheries
  • Plant Breeding: Green Revolution; and Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Developing Resistance to Insect Pests and Improved Food Quality
  • Single Cell Proteins (SCP)
  • Tissue Culture

Chapter – 10 Microbes in Human Welfare

To get a proper understanding of Microbes in Human Welfare, students need to study the following sub-topics:

  • Microbes in Household Products
  • Microbes in Industrial Products: Fermented Beverages; Antibiotics; Chemicals; and Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment
  • Microbes in Production of Biogas: Biogas Plant
  • Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers

UNIT IX – Biotechnology

This unit of Biology syllabus for Class 12 includes the following chapters:

Chapter – 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Biotechnology covers the following domains:

  • Principles of Biotechnology
  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction Enzymes; Cloning Vectors; and Competent Host (for transformation with recombinant DNA)
  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology: Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA); Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations; Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR; Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host Cell/Organism; Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product; and Downstream Processing

Chapter – 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

To study applications of Biotechnology students have to cover the following domains:

  • Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), Bt Cotton; and Pest Resistant Plants
  • Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Genetically Engineered Insulin; Gene Therapy; and Molecular Diagnosis
  • Transgenic Animals
  • Ethical Issues

UNIT X – Ecology

This unit of Biology syllabus for Class 12 includes the following chapters:

Chapter – 13 Organisms and Populations

This sub-unit of Ecology contains:

  • Organism and its Environment: Major Abiotic Factors; Responses to Abiotic Factors; and Adaptations 
  • Populations: Population Attributes; Population Growth – Natality, Mortality, Immigration and Emigration; Life History Variation; and Population Interactions

Chapter – 14 Ecosystem

To understand the Ecosystem, students have to cover the following domains:

  • Ecosystem – Structure and Function
  • Productivity
  • Decomposition
  • Energy Flow – Food Chain and Food Web
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Ecological Succession – Succession of Plants
  • Nutrient Cycling – Carbon Cycle and Phosphorus Cycle
  • Ecosystem Services

Chapter – 15 Biodiversity and Conservation

This topic includes:

  • Biodiversity – Genetic, Species and Ecological Diversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; and Loss of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity Conservation – Reasons and Ways – In situ Conservation and Ex-situ Conversation

Chapter – 16 Environmental Issues

Students of Biology are required to study the following topics of Environmental Issues:

  • Air Pollution and its Control
  • Water Pollution and its Control: Domestic Sewage and Industrial Effluents; and Integrated Waste Water Treatment
  • Solid Wastes: Remedy for Plastic Waste
  • Agro-chemicals and their Effects: Organic Farming
  • Radioactive Wastes
  • Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
  • Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
  • Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance: Soil Erosion and Desertification; and Waterlogging and Soil Salinity
  • Deforestation

Also Read: NCERT Biology Class 11

Deleted Portion Class XII Biology Syllabus for 2022

Credit: Padhle Science

In 2022, NCERT decided to delete certain sections of the Biology Class 12 syllabus. We have listed the deleted sections for the reference of students:

Under Unit-VI Reproduction 

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organism  Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. 

 Under Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution  

 Chapter-7: Evolution  Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.  

Under Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

 Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production  Animal husbandry, Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein. 

 Under Unit-X Ecology and Environment  

Chapter-14: Ecosystem  Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).  

 Chapter 16: Environmental Issues  Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; exemplifying case study as success story addressing the environmental issue(s).  

 PRACTICAL A: List of Experiments   

1. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in the air at two widely different sites.
2. Study the plant population density by the quadrat method. 
3. Study the plant population frequency by the quadrat method. 

Also Read: How to Ace Class 12th Biology Practical?

 PRACTICAL A: List of Experiments   

1. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
2. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colours/sizes of any plant.
3. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging. 


How many chapters are there in Class 12 Biology CBSE?

There are 16 chapters in NCERT Class 12 Biology.

What are the topics of Class 12 Biology?

Class 12 Biology topics are Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and its Applications, and Ecology and Environment.

How many chapters are there in Zoology Class 12?

There are nearly 12 Zoology chapters in the Class 12 NCERT Biology book.

Biology syllabus for class 12th CBSE is a foundation stone for any medical course. Once you have a clear understanding of the subject, cracking an exam becomes easy. You must already have made up your mind for higher studies or you might be preparing for a medical entrance exam. You might want to take help from the leading career experts at Leverage Edu who will guide you to choose the best option for your career. 

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