Earth Sciences

6 minute read
Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences is the study of the physical Earth, its oceans, and the air that surrounds it. Among the subjects covered are geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences. Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science but with a much older history. This blog is your source of information about all things Earth Sciences and the profession of an Earth Scientist.  

What is Earth Science?

The primary purpose of Earth Sciences is to understand the planet’s current features and past evolution and to apply this knowledge to the advantage of humans wherever possible. As a result, an Earth Scientist’s key tasks are to observe, describe, and classify all of Earth’s features, whether they are characteristic or not, to suggest theories to explain their presence and development, and to devise methods for judging the relative validity of opposing viewpoints. This is how the most believable, agreeable, and long-lasting ideas emerge.

What Does an Earth Scientist Do?

A scientist’s job is to discover more about the universe we live in. There are several branches of science. Earth Science is one of them. What do Earth Scientists, on the other hand, do? An Earth Scientist, of course, studies the earth. He studies the history of the planet and maintains notes of the changes that are made on a regular basis. An Earth Scientist is also responsible for studying the universe and the Earth’s position inside it.

Also Read: BSc Courses after 12th Science

Disciplines of Earth Sciences

Since the study of Earth is a vast field to cover, Earth Science is divided into several sub-disciplines. It covers the following disciplines under its umbrella:


The study of celestial bodies such as stars, planets, and other celestial bodies is known as astronomy. Astronomers measure the size of these objects. They figure out what materials these objects are made of. They also consider how these components function.


Oceanography is another discipline of Earth Science. Oceanographers study the world’s oceans. They learn about the ocean’s physical characteristics. They keep track of the organisms that live there. Oceanographers keep track of the natural resources that exist in the world’s waters.


Weather and climate are dealt with by meteorology, a part of Earth Science. Atmospheric measurements are taken by meteorologists. They have the ability to forecast future weather and climate.


The final branch of Earth Science, Geology is the study of the earth’s formation. Geologists study rocks and minerals to learn about the earth’s past. They also research the earth’s structure.

How To Become an Earth Scientist?

A job as an Earth Scientist such as a Geologist can be both exciting and lucrative. To become a Geologist, one must possess excellent communication, critical thinking, outdoor, problem-solving, and physical stamina. Apart from that, in order to become a geologist, one must meet the following basic academic requirements:

  • Science Stream Subject Combination (Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics)
  • GATE, IIT JAM Geology, UPSC Geologist Exam, Cochin University of Science and Technology – Common Admission Test, Osmania University Postgraduate Common Entrance Test, Andhra University Region Postgraduate Common Entrance Test State level PG Entrance Examination, Banaras Hindu University Postgraduate Course Entrance Examination (MMUS).
  • Academics – To work as a geologist, you’ll need a bachelor’s degree in geology, Earth Sciences, or a related scientific field.
  • A candidate can pursue a master’s degree in the field after graduation. If a student wishes to be considered for admission to a government college, he or she must take national-level examinations such as the GATE. To choose candidates, several colleges hold their own admissions exams.
  • Candidates for higher education must hold a Ph.D. degree (Ph.D. in Geology). Note: A master’s or doctoral degree is required for specialized employment such as consulting for oil firms or professorships in the Geosciences.

Also Read: BSc Environmental Science: Colleges, Eligibility, Scope

Eligibility Criteria (UG & PG) of Earth Science

Students must meet certain eligibility criteria to enrol for Earth Sciences courses in various colleges and institutes across India, in addition to appearing for entrance tests conducted by various colleges/institutions. To study abroad, apart from the eligibility criteria, personal interviews might be required as well. 

UG Earth Science Course Eligibility Criteria

  • Students applying for Earth Sciences in the undergraduate program (B.Sc./ B.Tech.) must have finished 10+2 with a minimum of 50% in science from an Indian board recognized by the government.
  • Students may be required to take admission exams such as JEE MAIN if their college/institute requires it. 

PG Earth Science Course Eligibility Criteria

  • Students applying for M.Sc./ M.Tech. programs in Earth Sciences must have received a minimum of 55 per cent in a UG-level test in the corresponding discipline from an Indian college or university.
  • Students may be required to take entrance tests such as the GATE. 

Eligibility for the Doctoral Program

  • Students applying for a Ph.D. in Earth Sciences or any specialization relevant to the field must have a PG level exam in the associated subject with a score of at least 55 percent.
  • Students may also be required to take entrance tests administered by their chosen institutes and universities.

Fee Structure

Annual Fees: INR 5,000 to 2,00,000 on average in India. International fees depend from University to University and also on the course selected. On average, the fees range anywhere between USD 20,000-50,000. This comes to approximately INR 14-20 lakhs depending on the exchange rates. 

Also Read: BSc Courses List

Top Institutes Abroad 

Here are the top universities abroad which offer the Earth Sciences course:

QS Ranking 2023Name of UniversityLocation
01ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZurich, Switzerland
02Harvard UniversityCambridge, United States
03California Institute of Technology (Caltech)Pasadena, United States
04Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)Cambridge, United States
05University of OxfordOxford, United Kingdom
06University of CambridgeCambridge, United Kingdom
07University of California, Berkeley (UCB)Berkeley, United States
08Stanford University Stanford, United States
09Columbia UniversityNew York City, United States
10University of WashingtonSeattle, United States

Source: QS World University Rankings: Earth and Marine Sciences Rankings 2023.

Top Institutes in India 

Here are the top 10 universities in India which offer the Earth Sciences course:

  • IIT Bombay – Indian Institute of Technology
  • Allahabad University – University of Allahabad
  • Punjabi University, Patiala
  • IIT Kanpur
  • IIT Kharagpur
  • IIT Roorkee
  • Pondicherry University, Puducherry
  • Vidyasagar University, Midnapore
  • IISc Bangalore – Indian Institute of Science
  • Panjab University, Chandigarh

Also Read: High Salary Courses After 12th Science

Scope of an Earth Scientist

The key branches are meteorology, geology, oceanography, climatology, and environmental science. There is huge scope in the government sector in India. In India, you can work in organizations like the Central Ground Water Board and the Geological Survey of India, Oil & Natural Gas Corporation, Coal India, Hindustan Zinc, Mineral Exploration Authority, Defence, and other Paramilitary forces, etc. In the U.S., there are chances to become a government scientist for the U.S. Geological Survey, NOAA, NASA, etc.

What is included in Earth Sciences?

Earth Science is a broad field that encompasses many different branches, such as, but not limited to: geobiology, hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, seismology and so on.

What is Earth Sciences called?

Earth Science is also known as Geoscience, the study of Earth.

Who is eligible for Earth Science?

To pursue Earth Sciences as an undergraduate course (B.Sc./ B. Tech.), students need to have a science background in 10+2 level with at least 50 per cent marks from a recognised board in India. Some colleges/Institutes may also require students to appear for entrance tests such as JEE MAIN.

If you want to pursue a career in Earth Sciences, apart from good academics, you also require a good application to get into the top universities to study abroad. If you want to apply, take the guidance of Leverage Edu. The Experts will help you in the entire application process to get you admitted to top colleges. All the best!

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *