CTET Notes & Study Plan

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from trade to territory

Central Teaching Eligibility Test (CTET) is the most common pathway to enter the esteemed profession of teaching. Organised by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), CTET is divided by into two parts- Paper 1 and  Paper 2, qualifying which the candidates will be recruited as full-time teachers under the Government of India. As the exam entitles applicants with the reputable job of teachers, it aims to test them at varied topics. Thus, it is crucial to thoroughly prepare the CTET syllabus and crack the exam with tantalizing scores. If you are appearing for the CTET exam this year, here is a blog to help you with CTET notes, study plans and some tips and tricks. 

CTET Exam Notes

While preparing for the competitive exams, it is necessary to go by a properly devised plan laying emphasis on the weaker sections of the syllabus. Once you prepare well the entire syllabus, you can pin down some handy CTET notes, through which you can revise the entire syllabus easily. Drafting notes will also help you in retaining the important points from the hoard of the syllabus. Let’s have a quick look at important section-wise pointers:

Material and Classifications 

CTET notes for this topic are: 

  • Materials can be distinguished through properties like Appearance, Hardness, Solubility, Transparency,  Floating Properties 
  • Properties of metals are Conductivity, Hardness, Ductility, Lustre, Malleability, Ductile, Physical State, Sonorous
  • The reaction of metals with oxygen: 2Cu + O2 →2CuO

Important Fuels and Their Composition 

Through the following CTET notes, you will ace this chapter

  • The substances which produce heat and light on burning are called Fuels 
  • Crystallization, Boiling, Melting, Sublimation, Vaporization are physical changes 
  • Burning of fuel, electrolysis of water, burning of a candle, photosynthesis are chemical changes
  • The flame contains three parts Innermost Part (Black), Middle Part (Yellow), Outermost Part (Blue) 

Here are some CTET notes as key pointers for your quick revision

  • Problems related to the uncertainty of objective 
  • Problems related to the instruction material
  • Various problems related to the in-service teachers training 
  • Problems related to the unavailability of trained or experienced teachers 
  • Problems related to the library 

Also Read: Child Development and Pedagogy

Fundamentals Rights and Duties

Just go through these CTET notes for a revision of this topic 

  • Fundamental Rights are regarded as the Magna Carta of India
  • There are 11 Fundamental Duties for the Indian Citizens 
  • Originally the Constitution of India did not contain the Fundamental Duties, they were added later on by the Swaran Singh Committee in 1975 
  • Through the 86th Amendment Act, 11th Fundamental duty was added.

Study Plans For CTET Notes

For the desired execution of your plan of action, you need a time table through which you can bifurcate all your tasks depending upon the focus they need. The topics you have thoroughly studied must be set aside for a while and complete focus should be the topics which count as weak points. You should practice the weaker section daily to develop a better grip, on the other hand, you can just revise the concepts which you have studied earlier, for grasping a better score in the CTET Exam. Once you complete the entire syllabus, it is beneficial to revise the entire syllabus along with CTET notes at least twice, this can be your secret success mantra for cracking the exam. Leverage Edu has formulated an exclusive study plan for you:

Name of the Subject 1st Month Topics 2nd Month Topics 3rd Month Topics 
Child Development and Pedagogy -Thinking and Thought
-Child Development
-Concept of Inclusive Education 
-Special Needs 
-Concept of Learning 
-Pedagogy Issues 
-Learning Pedagogy 
-Practice Mock Test Papers 
-Complete revision of all the topics
Mathematics -Number System
-Measurement of Unit
-Data Handling 
-Pedagogy of Mathematics
-Thorough revisions of all the topics
-Practice Mock Tests 
Environmental Studies -Water and Travel 
-Food Nutrition
-Family and Friends 
-Things we make and do
-General Knowledge
-Pedagogy of Environmental Studies 
-Revise all the topics 
-Practice sample question papers 
Science -Food-Moving Things (People and Idea)
-The World of  Living 
-Natural Phenomenon 
-Natural Resources 
-Pedagogical issues related questions 
-Practice Mock Test Papers 
-Complete revision of all the topics
Language I  (English)-Reading Comprehension Poem Type 
-Reading Comprehension Essay Type 
-English Grammar based Pedagogy 
-Principles of Language teaching pedagogy 
-Language Skill
-based pedagogy 
-Revise every topic thoroughly
– Practice Mock Tests
Language II  (Hindi)-Reading Comprehension Poem Type
 -Reading Comprehension Essay Type 
-Principles of Language teaching pedagogy 
-Language Skill-based pedagogy 
-Hindi Grammar-based Pedagogy 
-Revision and Practice of Mock tests 

Exam Preparation Schedule: 30 Days

CTET is easy to crack if applicants are prepared well. One of the important aspects is to prepare a study plan. Don’t worry you have got you covered is a study plan of 30 days that will cover all the syllabus and revision. Here is the study plan for CTET:

Day 1 – 4Child Development and Pedagogy 
Day 5Take mocks test and practice previous year sample paper on Child development and pedagogy 
Day 6 – 9Mathematics 
Day 10Take mocks test and practice previous year sample paper on Mathematics and revise all previous topics as well.
Day 10 – 13Environmental Studies 
Day 14Take mocks test and practice previous year sample paper on Environmental studies and revise all previous topics as well.
Day 15 – 18Science 
Day 19Practice mock tests and previous year sample paper on Science
Day 20 – 24Language I  (English)
Day 25Practice mock tests and previous year sample paper on Language I  (English) and also revise all previous topics
Day 26 – 28Language II  (Hindi)
Day 29Practice mock tests and previous year sample paper on Language II  (Hindi) and also revise all previous topics
Day 30Go through all your CTET notes, practice the latest previous year sample paper and relax.

CTET Previous Year Question Paper PDF

Practicing from the previous year’s question paper is a great way to evaluate your weaker and strong points. It helps students to build an exam strategy and time management. Here are the CTET previous year question paper PDF:

CTET Question Paper 2018 PDF Download Main Paper 1
CTET Question Paper 2018 PDF Download Main Paper 2
CTET Question Paper 2019 PDF Download Main Paper 1 (July)
CTET Question Paper 2019 PDF Download Main Paper 2 (July)
CTET Question Paper 2019 PDF Download Main Paper 1 (December)
CTET Question Paper 2019 PDF Download Main Paper 2 (December)

CTET Books

There are infinite books available in marketing for CTET. Applicants are often confused about selecting the right book. We have listed down the best books that will help CTET notes, preparation, and revision:

Mathematics and Pedagogy by Arihant ExpressBuy Here
CTET and TETs Environmental Science and PedagogyBuy Here
CTET Success Master Paper-II Teacher Selection for Class VI-VIII MATHS & SCIENCE with Practice set ArihantBuy Here
CTET Master Science Social Studies for Paper 2Buy Here
A Complete Resource for CTET: English and Pedagogy Language 1 by Geeta SahniBuy Here

Also Read: Creative Writing Topics

CTET Exam Pattern

Exam pattern plays an important role while preparing CTET notes and exam strategy. Here is the CTET exam pattern of 2023:

CTET Exam Pattern 2023: Paper 1

SubjectTotal MCQsMarks
Child Development and Pedagogy3030
Language I3030
Language II3030
Environmental Studies3030

CTET Exam Pattern 2023: Paper 2

SubjectTotal MCQsMarks
Child Development and Pedagogy3030
Language I3030
Language II3030
Mathematics & Science6060
Social Studies OR Social Science6060

CTET Notes on First Farmers and Herders

The New Stone Age began some 10,000 years ago. This was also recognized as the human race’s age of greatest progress. During this time, humans transitioned from gathering to growing food, as well as breeding and herding animals. Here are the CTET notes on First Famers and Herders:

How did Farming and Herding Start?

  • The planet began to warm approximately 12,000 years ago. Plants, trees, grasslands, and overall greenery increased as a result of this. As a result, grass-eating animals such as deer, goats, sheep, and others began to multiply.
  • Humans were still gatherers, gathering only what they could consume. As the amount of greenery rose, people began to notice the locations where food plants might be found, as well as how seeds broke off stalks, fell to the ground, and produced new plants.
  • Animals began to flock to areas where people planted crops to eat the grass. People began to allow non-aggressive animals, such as sheep and goats, to come and stay near them because these animals provided milk, meat, and in some cases, even carried a weight.
  • These animals would be attacked by wild animals looking for food. Humans, on the other hand, began to protect them against these attacks and gradually became herders. A dog was the first animal that man domesticated.

A New Way of Life: From Gathering to Growing Food

  • When humans first began farming, they discovered that seeds took days, weeks, months, and even years to grow. This required people to stay in one spot for an extended period of time in order to care for the plants, water them, and protect them from birds and animals.
  • People gradually began to make clay pots or woven baskets, and some even dug storage pits in the earth.
  • Animals served as a food resource since they provided people with milk and meat. People settled down in one place for longer periods of time as a result of this transition. The man began to plant roots as he switched from gathering to cultivating food.

Archaeological Findings

Early farmers and herders have been discovered by archaeologists in various regions such as Mehrgarh, Chirand, Daojali Hading, Hallur, Paiyampalli, Koldihwa, and many more. Grain and bones were also discovered in several locations around the globe. It was proof of a period when man transitioned from gathering to growing food.

Below is a basic overview of where grains and bones were discovered:

Grains and BonesSites
Wheat, Barley, Sheep, Goat & CattleMehrgarh (in present day-Pakistan)
Rice & fragmented animal bonesKoldihwa (in present-day Uttar Pradesh)
Rice & cattle (hoof marks on clay surface)Mahagara (in present-day Uttar Pradesh)
Lentil & WheatGufkral (in present-day Kashmir)
Wheat, lentil, dog, cattle & sheepBurzahom (in present-day Kashmir)

Archaeologists discovered pit-houses constructed into the ground with steps going into them, as well as cooking utensils inside and outside the homes, in Burzahom. Many more tools were discovered, including those with a polished edge to aid in cutting and mortars and pestles to aid in grinding. Earthen pots were discovered in several locations, which were used for both storage and cooking. Let’s take a deeper look at two locations where archaeologists discovered early farmers and herders: Mehrgarh and Daojali Hading:


  • The earliest known civilization on the subcontinent was in Mehrgarh (now in Pakistan). This occurred near the Bolan Pass, which is a crucial section of the route to Iran. Archaeologists discovered many burned grains and animal bones during their excavations.
  • Other investigations turned up the remains of square or rectangular dwellings with four or more compartments – a storage-friendly design. There were also some burial sites discovered.
  • Archeologists came to the conclusion that Mehrgarh was one of the earliest villages known to us as a result of their excavations. Mehrgarh was likely one of the first areas where humans began to cultivate wheat and barley and raise livestock.

Daojali Hading

  • Daojali Hading is located in the highlands surrounding the Brahmaputra river, close to the routes leading into China and Myanmar (Burma) (in Assam). Archaeologists discovered stone tools such as a mortar and pestle during their excavations in this location.
  • This indicated that individuals could be able to grow and prepare food for consumption. Aside from these, various tools made of fossil wood (wood that has hardened into stone) and ceramics, as well as Jadeite – a stone that may have been transported from China – were discovered.

CTET Notes on Learning Principles and Theories

Learning is the primary function of the brain that continues from birth to death. It is the acquisition of knowledge, behaviors, skills, which occur as a result of experiences. It is a result of how people interpret their experiences and adds to what they already know. The definition of learning has three components: 1) It takes place in the long-term, 2) It is a relatively permanent change in an individual 2) the cause of change is environmental.

Forms of Learning

  • Perpetual learning

This is the type of learning in which an individual perceives various incidents, objects through their sense organs and is able to understand and improve their response to stimuli. For example, distinguishing between various odors, able to separate different shades of colors.

  • Conceptual learning

This form of learning refers to understanding the concepts and ideas more extensively and perceiving the object without it being in its concrete form. After this, individuals start thinking in abstract terms. For example, maths is a subject that teaches you concepts rather than rote learning formulas and equations.

  • Appreciative learning

Appreciation and learning go hand in hand to build capacity. In this type of learning, ideas, attitude, and mental disposition that is related to a positive feeling of mind play a role in enhancing values. For example, if a child is appreciated for behavior or value that he has acquired, he will tend to repeat it to get a similar positive feeling in his mind. 

  • Associative learning

This type of learning states that ideas and experiences are mentally linked to each other. An individual tries to relate the mental image of past experience with new experiences. For example, if a child touches a hot iron, he will associate it with pain and will be conditioned to not touch it again.

Principles of Learning

  1. Principle of readiness

This implies the degree of willingness with which an individual is eager to learn something new. The basic needs of an individual, whether it is mental, physical, or emotional, need to be met before they are capable of learning. This means that the person must be willing to learn the task at hand, and the teacher’s task should be to motivate the learner by making the subject matter interesting. Students show a strong interest in acquiring knowledge only if they find a clear reason to do so.

  1. Principle of exercise

This principle states that learning is strengthened if it is followed by repetition and regular practice. Practice leads to improvement and the individual is able to retain the information for longer. If practice is discontinued, the connection of learning is weakened, thus, the teacher can strengthen the learning process by repeating the subject matter at regular intervals, while directing it towards learning something new.

  1. Principle of effect

The principle of effect is that learning is strengthened when followed by a pleasant experience and weakened when associated with negative feelings. Positive reinforcement tends to motivate the learner and is more apt to lead to success. Thus, a teacher should recognize the importance of appreciating the progress of the students to ensure that they strive to continue learning.

  1. Principle of primacy

Primacy, the state of being first, lays a strong foundation that becomes difficult to erase. This is the reason that it is imperative that the students must learn correctly the first time. Teachers should ensure that the first learning experience should be positive because incorrect information is harder to erase than teaching the correct one in the first place.

  1. Principle of intensity

The principle of intensity implies that a more intense, exciting learning experience is likely to be retained for a longer time. Learning connected to a real-life scenario creates a more vivid and unforgettable experience rather than the dull experience of merely reading them.

  1. Principle of recency

This principle implies that subject matter learned more recently, is the best remembered. The further a learner gets from a fact, the harder it gets to retain that information. Thus, teachers recognize the importance of the principle of recency while making lesson plans and reemphasize important points at the end of a lesson to help the learner remember them.

  1. Principle of freedom

Freedom constitutes growth and responsibility. Compulsion and force are more likely to be counterproductive for the students to learn and grasp facts. This principle states that things that are learned freely and on their own will, are better remembered by the learner.

Many major psychologists have shared their views on the learning principle. Following are the brief descriptions and implications of the most important ones. Apart from these theories, Gestalt theory of insightful learning, Karl Roger’s experiment learning, are also one of important ones.

Thorndike’s Theory of Trial and Error

E.L Thorndike, one of the pioneers of educational psychology has formulated three laws of learning in the early 20th century, i.e, 

  1. Law of readiness
  2. Law of exercise
  3. Law of effect

His theory also includes 5 more subordinate laws:

  1. Law of multiple responses- This states that if the first response is not immediately reinforced, a new response will be initiated. For example, if a child can’t solve a puzzle in one way, he will try another variety of approaches to solving it.
  1. Law of set or attitude- Learning is guided by the attitude or perspective of the individual. It is affected more in the person if they are set to excel in it.
  1. Pre-potency of elements-  According to this law, the learner is more likely to react to situations that are more essential and tends to ignore the irrelevant features.
  1. Law of response by analogy- According to this law, individuals combine the old experiences while learning new situations, one that might have common elements with the old one.
  1. Law of associative shifting- According to this law, an individual may exhibit a response, of which he is capable, associated with any other situation to which he is sensitive.

Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory, proposed by Albert Bandura, emphasizes the learning that occurs by observing, and imitating the social behavior of others. It involves concepts such as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. This theory considers how environmental and cognitive factors influence human learning and behavior.

Observational Learning

An observer’s behavior can be affected by the vicarious reinforcement (positive)  or vicarious punishment (negative) – of someone else’s behavior.

Mediational Processes

This theory acts as a bridge between traditional learning theory (i.e., behaviorism) and cognitive learning theories. The 4 mediational processes proposed by Bandura are:

  1. Attention: An individual cannot learn unless they pay attention to the subject matter
  1. Retention: This process depends on the individual’s ability to remember the observed behavior.
  1. Production: This refers to the individual’s ability to imitate and perform the perceived behavior.
  1. Motivation: The will to perform the behavior. If the reinforcement outweighs the punishment, then the behavior will be more likely to be imitated by the observer.

Pavlov Theory of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning arises when a biologically powerful stimulus and a  neutral stimulus are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Pavlov proved this with the experiment that showed that when a bell was sounded each time the dog was fed, the dog learned to associate the sound with the presentation of the food.

Implications of classical conditioning:

  • It emphasizes the principles of association.
  • Speech can be learnt with the help of conditioning.
  • The theory of rewards and punishments is also based on conditioning.
  • Teachers should work on developing positive attitudes, and habits with the help of conditioning.
  • This theory impacts a child’s ability to learn at an early stage.
  • Conditioning helps when a child is trying to make adjustments with the environment.

B.F Skinner Theory of Operational Learning

Its educational implications are as follows:

The bad behavior of the students should not be strengthened. 

Reinforcement of desired behavior by the parents or the teachers.

This theory is very useful for developing programmed instructional material and a systematic approach to teaching machines/aids.

CTET Notes on Family 

Family is defined as the group of people in which members are related to each other by blood, affinity. Family plays a pivotal role in the early development of children as they help in fostering values like unity, selflessness, altruism, cooperation, acceptance in children. Family is considered as the basic unit of society

Merits of Family

Types Of Family

Joint FamilyNuclear Family
Members of two-three generations live togetherMembers of single generation live together
Parents, their children, brothers and sisters, sister-in-law, their children, and grandparents live under the same roofParents and their unmarried children live together under the same roof
Declining recently in society because of fast-paced life and influence of western culturePrevailing in society nowadays because of the fast paced life and influence of western culture
The size of the family is largeThe size of the family is small
More number of children are there in joint familyLess number of children are there in nuclear family
Children learn value of discipline and unity early in childhood due to presence of grandparents at home
Since the size of the family is small, children become responsible and self-dependent

Importance Of Family

1)      Child learns humanistic values

2)      Person understands how our society and world works and functions

3)       All the economic activities of human beings are conducted in the family

4)      Family facilitates social, mental, emotional, physical development of child

CTET Child Development Study Notes on Special Needs

 Specially abled should be handled with proper care and education. Here are the CTET Child Development Study Notes on Special Needs:

Hearing Impairment

Hearing impairment can cause an inability to understand verbal communication. Sometimes due to unavoidable situations like heavy noise, distortion, louder voices don’t make it clear for students. Hearing impairment can be classified into 2 categories:-

Completely deaf: Hearing loss level is 90 decibels or more and such children need hearing aids. Without them, they can’t listen to anything.

Partial deaf: Known as sensorineural hearing loss. Causes due to damage of the tiny hair-like cells of the inner ear or the auditory nerve. It prevents the transfer of signals to the brain. 


  1. Hearing aids must be made available to the students.
  2. Lip reading must be taught.
  3. Audio-visual equipment can be used for better interaction.
  4. Body movements, especially hands, could be used to communicate with the child.
  5. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks has become an obstacle for Students to understand lip reading. However, teachers are encouraged to use face shields and drawl as much as possible.

Visual Impairment

Blind: Child who has sight adjustment capacity of 20/200 Snellen.

Low vision: Child who’s having sight adjustment capacity of 20/70 Snellen to 20/200.


  1. Make sure the child seats on the first bench that is nearest to the board as well as the teacher.
  2. The classroom must have proper lights.
  3. Braille should be used to teach blind students.
  4. For Students of low vision, fonts must be big, bold, and highlighted.
  5. A magnifying glass can also be provided.

Locomotor Disability

This is caused due to disability in joints, muscles, which restricts the movement of limbs or the usual form of cerebral palsy. Common conditions include cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophies, poliomyelitis, fractures, spinal injuries, soft tissues, etc. There are 3 types of locomotor disability:-

  • Muscle and bone-related
  • Neurological damage
  • Congenital malformation


  1. They should attend classes along with normal children.
  2. Accessories like wheelchairs should be made available on the school premises.
  3. Must be trained for motor skills (like small movements in hands, fingers, toes, lips, and tongue)
  4. Overall development like physical, emotional, and social is necessary and teachers should pay extra notice to that.
  5. These students expect normal and generous behavior from other students. Hence other normal students should treat them with love and care.

Mental Obstruction

When intellectual abilities are not working, that kind of situation is mental retardation. The IQ level is measured with the help of the following table:-

120-139Level acumen
110-119Above average


  1. Severe category children should be taught basic life skills like brushing, combing, eating, dressing, etc.
  2. Encourage social skills like shaking hands, greeting elders, etc.
  3. Free time activities like watching TV, playing games, listening to music, etc. Should be taught.
  4. Mathematical skills are to be made acquainted with like counting, adding, subtraction, etc.
  5. The teaching style should be completely different from a normal child’s.

Disability in Learning

It is more of a mental disability. It gives rise to difficulty in learning things. It can be of various form such as:-

  1. Poor coordination.
  2. Problems in solving mathematics.
  3. Difficulty in remembering facts.
  4. The problem in reading/writing.
  5. Lack of attention.
  6. Confused regarding directions.
  7. Uncleared concepts regarding time.
  8. Problems in staying organized.

There are 4 types of learning disability:-

  • Dysgraphia: Difficulty in writing and spelling. Can be of both technical as well as the expressive sense. 
  • Dyslexia: difficulty in reading words or pronunciation. Additionally, it doesn’t affect general intelligence.
  • Dyscalculia: Problems relating to calculations.
  • Dyspraxia: The disability to make the desirable body response. Relates with motor functions.


  1. They need a proper consultant.
  2. Group education is encouraged. That is one student can teach one another.
  3. They should be provided with complete resources along with a resource room.
  4. Teachers should use various techniques to teach.

Overall education tips:

Students who are specially-abled shall be treated with utmost care. So here are some common guidelines irrespective of the types of disability:-

  1. Teachers can involve students’ parents for further interaction and in the activities in the school.
  2. Every child is different. So teachers should treat them according to the child’s comfort and discomfort.
  3. Individual goals should be encouraged along with other students inside the classroom.
  4. Equality is appreciated among all. So normal students and teachers should be generous and respectful towards the specially-abled.
  5. Develop a sense of friendship among all the students.
  6. Promote unity in diversity.
  7. Organize various programs for the students to teach them values.

CTET Child Development Theories 

The three CTET Child Development Theories mentioned below are a part of the CTET Exam curriculum:

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Developed by Jean Piaget, a child psychologist, this is one of the most prominent theories around the cognitive development phase. Piaget proposes the importance of maturation and how learners interact with their environment and develop complex reasoning and knowledge. 

The theory proposes various stages of cognitive development depending on the perception and observation of a person. The CTET Child Development Theories syllabus covers the four stages. 

Stages of Piaget’s Theory: 

  1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years) 
  • The compound word combines “senses” and “motor skills.”
  • It is characterized by the reflex actions of infants and children.
  • They used their own physical or motor skills to develop cognitive skills or make their own world.
  1. Pre-operational Stage (2 to 7 years) 
  • This period happens before operational thought is developed.
  • Partially logical thinking or thought begins during this age. 
  • Also called the ‘ego-centric stage’. 
  • Pre-operational thinking can be and usually is illogical.

For example, a child thinks that a tall slender glass has more water than a short wider glass just based on the looks of it,  even if the volume of the water is the same in reality. 

  1. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 12 years) 
  • Concrete means real or tangible. 
  • Logical thinking starts with this period. 
  • Children need concrete objects to demonstrate and to reach conclusions.

 For example, we can find children of this stage solving mathematic problems with the help of blocks and fingers. 

  1. Formal Operational Stage (12 years and above)
  •  Abstract thought starts to develop.
  • This stage encompasses the rest of our lives. 
  • Children become more capable of dealing with complex issues than in previous stages.

Kohlberg’s Perspectives on Moral Development

Developed by Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, this theory mainly involves how children develop their ability to make moral decisions. Kohlberg’s Perspectives on Moral Development theorized six stages when people grow through three levels when they develop their moral reasoning which is covered in the CTET Child Development Theories syllabus:

Preconventional level (Mainly a test of morality)

  1. Punishment and obedience orientation
  • people are motivated by trying to avoid punishment.
  • They understand that their actions are bad if they get punished and good if they do not get punished. 
  1.  Self-interest or Individualism
  •  people are motivated by self-interest
  • However, though the elements of fairness are reciprocated, the emotion of ‘if you do harm to me, I will do to you’ exists.

Conventional Level (contains two levels and adolescence mainly operates in this level)

  1. Good boy-good girl concept
  •  people make moral decisions intending to get people to like them.
  1. Law and order orientation
  •  means performing one’s duty properly and respecting authorities

Post Conventional Morality (people define their values related to ethical values)

  1. Social terms in contracts
  • rules of society can change for its welfare, and they are not rigid.
  1. Universal ethical principles
  • People try to consider other’s interests when they make moral judgments.
  •  At the same time, they try to discover some means to serve their needs.

Limitations of Kohlberg’s perspective on moral development theory: 

  • mainly emphasizes reasoning rather than actual behavior
  • shows that children’s moral behavior and reasoning may be pretty weak.
  • Most philosophers believe that values should be a part of individual thinking so that a person’s actions could be in harmony with their thoughts.

Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development

Developed by Lev Vygotsky, this theory is related to both cognitive and social development. This social-cultural theory discusses how social interactions play a vital role in children’s cognitive development and describes the stages of speech and language. These stages are covered in the CTET Child Development Theories syllabus as:

  1. Scaffolding
  • children learn within social interactions while communicating
  • Hence, it emphasizes the importance of language development for the cognitive development
  1. Cultural Aspects
  • Through formal and informal communication and education, others convey to children the way their culture interprets and responds to the world.
  • Precisely, when adults interact with children, they convey the meaning attached to objects, events, and experiences.
  1.  Speech and Language Development
  •  the primary assumption of the theory that thought and language become increasingly independent and essential in the first few years of life.

Hence, the Lev Vygotsky zone of proximal development theory concludes that adults have an essential role in developing a child’s behavior through scaffolding. Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of language development learning and teaching in the child’s cognitive behavior and development.

CTET Study Notes on Health & Diseases

What is Health?

The word health refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to help people maintain this optimal state of health. According to WHO, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” They further classified it as “A resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.”

What is a Disease?

A disease is an abnormal condition affecting a living organism. Diseases are generally understood to be medical conditions that involve a pathological process associated with a specific set of symptoms. Localized diseases affect specific parts of the body; disseminated diseases spread to other parts of the body, and systemic diseases affect the entire body.

Types of diseases

  1. Acute disease

Acute diseases refer to the medical condition which occurs suddenly and lasts for a shorter period of time.

  1. Chronic disease

Chronic diseases develop slowly and last for a lifetime. Chronic diseases are sometimes fatal.

Now that we know what disease is, and what are its types, let’s see different types of deficiency diseases and their causes.

What are Deficiency Diseases?

A balanced diet is extremely important for good health for a person. Any imbalance in the diet might lead to excess or inadequate intake of certain nutrients. Insufficient intake of a particular nutrient can lead to a deficiency disease.

Vitamin deficiency disease

Vitamin deficiency is the condition of lack of a vitamin in the body. It’s caused by not enough intake of vitamins, it is classified as a primary deficiency, whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency.

Mineral deficiency disease

Mineral deficiency is a lack of the minerals, the micronutrients that are needed for an organism’s proper health. The cause may be a poor diet, impaired uptake of the minerals that are consumed, or dysfunction in the organism’s use of the mineral after it is absorbed.

Types of Vitamins Deficiency diseases
A (Retinol)Night blindness
B1 (Thiamine)Beri-beri
B2 (Riboflavin)Retarded growth, bad skin
B12 (Cyanocobalamin)Anemia
C (Ascorbic acid)Scurvy
D (Calciferol)Rickets
K (Phylloquinone)Excessive bleeding due to injury
Types of MineralsDeficiency Diseases
CalciumBrittle bones, excessive bleeding
PhosphorusBad teeth and bones
IodineGoitre, enlarged thyroid gland
CopperLow appetite, retarded growth

Food Sources

Let us discuss some food sources for vitamins and minerals:

Vitamin A

It is an important micronutrient that is obtained from different food sources such as carrots, spinach, egg, liver, and fish. It is required for normal vision, reproduction, growth, and the healthy immune system of an individual.

Vitamin B

  • Vitamin B can be of different types, such as Vitamin B1, B2, B12, etc. The deficiency diseases depend on the type of Vitamin B that a person is lacking.
  • Vitamin B1 food sources are peas, some fresh fruits (such as bananas and oranges), Nuts, and whole-grain bread.
  • Vitamin B6 food sources are poultry such as chicken or turkey, some fish, peanuts, soya beans, and wheat germ.
  • Vitamin B12 food sources are meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs.

Vitamin C

Food sources for vitamin care:-

  • citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice.
  • peppers.
  • strawberries.
  • blackcurrants.
  • broccoli.

Vitamin D

Food sources are:-

  • oily fish – such as salmon, sardines, herring, and mackerel.
  • red meat.
  • liver.
  • egg yolks.

Vitamin K

For vitamin K food sources are spinach, broccoli, iceberg lettuce,  and oils, soybean, and canola oil.


Food sources for iron are :

  • Beans and lentils.
  • Tofu.
  • Baked potatoes.
  • Cashews.
  • Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach.
  • Fortified breakfast cereals.


Food source for iodine is fish, iodized salt, dairy products, etc.

Prevention of Deficiency Diseases

The deficiency diseases can be prevented in the following manner:

  • Eat simple and eat food such as groundnut, soybean, pulses, etc.
  • Overcooked and undercooked food loses its nutritional value.
  •  Keeping cut vegetables and fruits for a longer time also kills its nutritional values. Avoiding this can prevent deficiency diseases.
  • Fermentation and sprouting increase the nutritional value of food.

CTET Study Notes on Food

What is food?

Foods are substances that are important for the growth of an organism. There are some organisms such as plants that make their own food by the process of photosynthesis. On the other hand, animals obtain their food from plants and other animals.

What is Nutrition?

The process of obtaining nutrients is called nutrition. Nutrients can be organic or inorganic substances that help in maintaining proper health.

Body nutrients are classified into two categories:

  • Macronutrients: These are required by the body in large amounts. E.g. carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
  • Micro Nutrients: These are required in a very small amount. e.g., minerals and vitamins. Micronutrients help to regulate different functions of the body.


They provide energy to organisms and are the primary source of energy to all living beings on the Earth. These are the cheapest sources of energy. 

Common Sources of Carbohydrates: 

  • Starch: Cereals (wheat, rice, and maize), millets (bajra, jowar, barley roots, and tubers (sweet potato, tapioca, and potato).
  • Sugar: Sugarcane, beetroot, fruits (banana, mango, sapota, or chiku), milk, honey etc. 
  • Cellulose is a fibrous substance that is not digested by the human body. However, it serves as roughage.

Functions of Carbohydrates

  • Lactose sugar promotes the growth of intestinal bacteria that facilitate the absorption of calcium.
  • Excess carbohydrates are converted into glycogen and serve as reserve sources of energy.
  • Glucose is the only source of energy for the central nervous system.


Fats are members of the lipid family that are insoluble in water but soluble in an organic solvent.

  • They are the richest source of energy but not the primary source of energy. 
  • Fats are obtained from ghee, butter, oil, meat, cheese, milk, cakes, cream, etc. 
  • Fats are stored in the body and act as an insulator to cold weather and any external shock.


Proteins are made up of many amino acids. Amino acids are of two types

  • Essential Amino Acid: These amino acids are not synthesized in the human body so it is very important to take them from outside in the form of food.
  • Non-Essential Amino Acid: These amino acids are synthesized in the animal body.

Proteins can be obtained from pulses, legumes, nuts, milk, fish, liver, egg, cheese, etc.

Protein performs many functions like:

  • Proteins are the structural component of the body and are required in building and maintaining body tissues.
  • Enzymes are made up of protein and these enzymes help in digestion so protein plays a role in digestion.
  • Protein also plays an important role in transporting oxygen in the blood.


They are chemical substances required by the body in very small amounts. They are essential for proper metabolic functions of the body, good health of the body, and protect the body from various diseases.

VitaminFunctionsBest and Sources
Vitamin B1 Carbohydrate metabolism; sharpens appetite; functioning of the heart, nerve, and muscles.Yeast; liver, milk; cheese; leafy vegetables,  meat; whole-grain cereals.
Vitamin B2Carbohydrate and protein metabolism; keeps skin healthy.Milk, liver meat: eggs, peas, yeast; whole grains; green leafy vegetables.
Vitamin B3 Protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. Keeps the skin healthy.Fish; eggs; meat; legumes; whole grains; leafy vegetables, peanuts; bean; tomato: potato.
Vitamin B12Blood formation, Nervous tissue metabolism, Nucleic acid synthesis.Liver; fish; cheese; milk, eggs, meat.
Vitamin C Resistance to infections; keeping teeth, gums, and joints healthy.Amia, cabbage; tomatoes, lemon, orange; mangoes; chilies, guava, pineapple; sprouted grams.
Vitamin A Maintenance of vision and skin; essential for the synthesis of visual pigment.Milk, cheese, butter, eggs, olive oil, carrots, mangoes, papaya, yellow pumpkin, spinach, sweet potato.
Vitamin DKeep teeth and bones healthy, absorption of calcium and phosphorus.Mild, cheese; egg yolk; fish, fish butter; exposure to sunlight.


  • These are micro-nutrient that help in the proper functioning and growth of the body.
  • Minerals are the inorganic component that helps proteins in performing normal functions.
  • Minerals are categorized into two classes: major elements and minor elements on the basis of their daily requirements.
  • Examples of major elements are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and iron. Examples of minor elements are iodine, magnesium, cobalt, etc.

Minerals: Sources and Importance

IronGreen vegetables like amla, spinach, apple, wheat, jaggery, grains, turnip, meat, eggs.Formation of hemoglobin
CalciumGreen vegetables, milk and milk products, eggs.For strong bones and teeth
PhosphorousEggs, meat, fish, whole, grains, milkFor strong bones and teeth
IodineSeafood and iodized saltFor proper functioning of the thyroid gland
SodiumTable salt, vegetables, processed foodMaintain proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction
PotassiumMilk, meat, vegetables, fruitsMaintain fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction
MagnesiumVegetables, legumes, nuts, and seedsFound in bones, important for muscle contraction, the importance for protein functioning


It is the fiber present in some food items like fruits and vegetables. Though roughage is not a food, it forms an important part of our diet. Some functions of roughage are

  • It helps in bowel movement.
  • It cleans our digestive tracts and protects us from digestive ailments.
  • It helps in retaining water in the body.
  • It helps in maintaining optimum levels of blood sugar and cholesterol.


It is an important constituent of our diet. 75% of an infant body and 70% of an adult body is nothing but water. Various functions of water are as follows

  • Essential for the transport and digestion of food material.
  • Excretes waste.
  • Maintains the body temperature.
  • Acts as a solvent in various reactions in the body.

Balance Diet

A balanced diet is one that contains all essential nutrients in suitable proportion to provide necessary energy and to keep the body in a healthy state.

A balanced diet has the following qualities

  • It meets the nutrient requirement of the body.
  • It consists of different types of food items.
  • It provides an adequate amount of energy.

How to Crack CTET?

Along with the useful CTET notes mentioned above, here are some preparation tips and tricks you must know to ace the exam:

  • Go through the whole CTET syllabus carefully and identify the concepts you are good at and those you need to explore in detail.
  • Practice different quizzes to master the different topics and concepts under the syllabus.
  • Since there is no negative marking in the exam, make sure to answer all the questions.
  • There are various CTET books and study materials available online which you can refer to learn every concept and topic along with practising mock tests. Take one mock test daily to keep a track on your progress and it will also help you bifurcate how much time you need to devote to each section.

CTET Notes from NCERT

The syllabus of NCERT classes and CTET is almost the same and often the notes of Class 8 – 10 are helpful in preparation. Here are some notes on different topics that will help you prepare your CTET notes:

Motion ScienceMicroorganismsForce and Pressure
LightStars and Solar SystemsAir and Water Pollution
Metals and Non-MetalsCrop ProductionNatural Phenomena
Colonialism and the CityIndia after IndependenceNational Movement
ResourcesIndian ConstitutionHuman Resources
SecularismLand, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife ResourcesAgriculture

Thus, we hope that through this blog on CTET notes you are all geared up to kick start your preparation for the upcoming exam. If you want to enter and excel in the domain of teaching, you must go for courses like Diploma in Education, Bachelor of Education, MS in Education, Diploma in Elementary Education abroad. To get admission in the leading universities of abroad, Contact us at Leverage Edu and our experts here will help you in the entire process. 

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