Pedagogy: Meaning, Approaches, Methods

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Teachers are the real builders of any nation as they play an imperative role in shaping the future of their students. All of us have grown in an educational system where teaching practices were not really exposed to the modern way of learning but restricted to certain parameters. Moreover, the relationship between a teacher and student was also defined to an extent. However, modern pedagogy has overshadowed the traditional one. With the advent of the internet and technology, students are informed about their curriculum and topics they are studying. Therefore, in order to pace up with the student level, an effective pedagogy in teaching practices can potentially yield promising results. This blog will help you learn the meaning, approaches and various methods of pedagogy in the contemporary times.

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General Overview

Pedagogy can be defined as a method or way of teaching whether any theoretical topic or academic subject. It has been derived from a Greek word “pedagogue” which stands for “the art of teaching children”. In simple terms, you can decipher its meaning as the method and practice of teaching which broadly includes theory, way of teaching as well as feedback and assessment. In order to have an effective learning process, a teacher delivers a lecture incorporating useful practice sessions and engaging way of imparting the knowledge of theoretical concepts and content. Pedagogy helps a teacher understand how learning should be facilitated. In order to strengthen your experience and skills as a teacher, pedagogy should be taken into utmost consideration in academic institutions.

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Importance of Pedagogy 

Pedagogy plays an important role in designing an effective learning approaches and methods. Glance through the imperative benefits of pedagogy which are as follows:

  • It helps improve the quality of teaching and learning. 
  • It assists both students and teachers in gaining an in-depth understanding of fundamental material. 
  • Effective teaching can help students achieve deeper learning. 
  • Pedagogy also enhances the student-teacher relationship.

Pedagogy Approaches

Now that you know its meaning and features, let’s understand the various aspects of Pedagogy. Broadly we can categorise this into four aspects of social constructivism, constructivism, behaviourism and liberationist.


In Behaviourism, learning is teacher-centric. This approach mainly believes that the teacher is the sole authority of handling a classroom lecture. In most of the times, this approach is considered as the traditional way of teaching style. It is important to note that behaviourism approach in pedagogy was thoroughly detailed by famous thinkers such as Thorndike in 1911, Pavlov in 1927 and Skinner in 1957. Furthermore, it explains that knowledge should be disseminated in a proper curriculum in which each subject is taught as opposed to topic-based learning. 


This is another approach in pedagogy which was researched by a noted thinker Piaget during the late twentieth century. It means how people learn from their experiences as well as reflections. It is a pupil-centric approach to learning and it is often called as ‘invisible pedagogy.’ This approach deals with project work, inquiry-based learning as well as various methods like Montessori or Steiner. Basically, Constructivism talks about the role of teachers in building activities to facilitate learning by the form of physical education or abstract or symbolic learning for older children. Further, this methodology also deals with conducting a lesson in outdoor surroundings and engage with nature in order to inculcate an environment away from the four walls of the classroom. 

Social Constructivism

A noted Cognitive psychologist, Lev Vygotsky had introduced the approach of social constructivism by further endorsing the work of Paiget’s Constructivism. This approach blends both teacher-guided and student-centred pedagogy. He argued with Paiget’s approach that says ideal learning can potentially happen within a social context. Lev believes that an effective way of teaching and learning is a two-way process, i.e. through the interaction between students and teachers. He extends it by saying that teachers should involve students in different interactions, processes, modelling, questioning etc.


Liberationism was brought forward by a famous Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire who was the Director of the Department of Education in Brazil. He brought a social revolution in Brazil by teaching illiterate adults to read in only 45 days. He believed poverty and hunger is a huge barrier for poor adults in learning. Later on, he was imprisoned in a military coup and also wrote a widely acclaimed book entitled ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed.’ He extensively exposed how students are being dehumanized in schools and urged the elite group for cooperation and unity. 

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Pedagogy Methods

Pedagogy has helped students and teachers find interesting effective ways of facilitating learning and teaching. Let’s understand the various methods of pedagogy.

  • Teacher-Centred Approach to Learning
  • Student-Centred Approach to Learning
  • High Technology Approach to Learning (Hi-tech)
  • Low Technology Approach to Learning (Low-tech)

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The methods are further divided into two parts, Teacher centric methods and Student-centric method.

Teacher-Centred Pedagogy Methods

  • Direct Instruction
  • Direct Instruction 
  • Kinesthetic Learning 

Student-Centred Pedagogy Methods 

  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Inquiry-based Learning
  • Expeditionary Learning
  • Personalized Learning
  • Game-based Learning

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Technology has completely revolutionized the educational landscape. It has equally helped millions of students to establish a prosperous career. The unique approaches and learning methods of Pedagogy have proved to be useful and beneficial in transforming the traditional approach to teaching. If you are planning to build your career in Teaching, sign up for a free 30-minute career counselling with our Leverage Edu experts and we will guide in you finding the suitable course and university that can equip you with the imperative knowledge and training to follow the path of an educator!

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