Pedagogy: Meaning, Approaches, Methods

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Teachers are the real builders of any nation as they play an imperative role in shaping the future of their students. All of us have grown up in an educational system where teaching practices were not really exposed to the modern way of learning but restricted to certain parameters. Moreover, the relationship between a teacher and student was also defined to an extent. However, modern pedagogy has overshadowed traditional one. With the advent of the internet and technology, students are informed about their curriculum and the topics they are studying. Therefore, in order to pace up with the student level, an effective pedagogy in teaching practices can potentially yield promising results. This blog will help you learn the meaning, approaches and various methods of pedagogy in contemporary times.

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General Overview

Pedagogy can be defined as a method or way of teaching any theoretical topic or academic subject. It has been derived from the Greek word “pedagogue” which stands for “the art of teaching children”. In simple terms, you can decipher its meaning as the method and practice of teaching which broadly includes theory, way of teaching as well as feedback and assessment. In order to have an effective learning process, a teacher delivers a lecture incorporating useful practice sessions and engaging ways of imparting knowledge of theoretical concepts and content. Pedagogy helps a teacher understand how learning should be facilitated. In order to strengthen your experience and skills as a teacher, pedagogy should be taken into utmost consideration in academic institutions.

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Importance of Pedagogy 

Pedagogy plays an important role in designing effective learning approaches and methods. Glance through the imperative benefits of pedagogy which are as follows:

  • It helps improve the quality of teaching and learning. 
  • It assists both students and teachers in gaining an in-depth understanding of fundamental material. 
  • Effective teaching can help students achieve deeper learning. 
  • Pedagogy also enhances the student-teacher relationship.

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Pedagogy Approaches

Now that you know its meaning and features, let’s understand the various aspects of Pedagogy. Broadly we can categorise this into four aspects social constructivism, behaviourism, collaboration and liberationism.


In behaviourism, learning is teacher-centric. This approach mainly believes that the teacher is the sole authority in handling a classroom lecture. Most of the time, this approach is considered the traditional way of teaching style. It is important to note that the behaviourism approach in pedagogy was thoroughly detailed by famous thinkers such as Thorndike in 1911, Pavlov in 1927 and Skinner in 1957. Furthermore, it explains that knowledge should be disseminated in a proper curriculum in which each subject is taught as opposed to topic-based learning. 


This is another approach in pedagogy which was researched by a noted thinker Piaget during the late twentieth century. It means how people learn from their experiences as well as reflections. It is a pupil-centric approach to learning and it is often called ‘invisible pedagogy.’ This approach deals with project work, inquiry-based learning as well as various methods like Montessori or Steiner. Basically, Constructivism talks about the role of teachers in building activities to facilitate learning in the form of physical education or abstract or symbolic learning for older children. Further, this methodology also deals with conducting a lesson in outdoor surroundings and engaging with nature in order to inculcate an environment away from the four walls of the classroom. 

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Social Constructivism

A noted Cognitive psychologist, Lev Vygotsky introduced the approach of social constructivism by further endorsing the work of Piaget’s Constructivism. This approach blends both teacher-guided and student-centred pedagogy. He argued with Piaget’s approach that says ideal learning can potentially happen within a social context. Lev believes that an effective way of teaching and learning is a two-way process, i.e. through the interaction between students and teachers. He extends it by saying that teachers should involve students in different interactions, processes, modelling, questioning etc.


Liberationism was brought forward by a famous Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire who was the Director of the Department of Education in Brazil. He brought a social revolution in Brazil by teaching illiterate adults to read in only 45 days. He believed poverty and hunger is a huge barrier for poor adults in learning. Later on, he was imprisoned in a military coup and also wrote a widely acclaimed book entitled ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed.’ He extensively exposed how students are being dehumanized in schools and urged the elite group for cooperation and unity. 

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Types of Pedagogy

The different types of Pedagogy are listed below:

  1. Social Pedagogy: The goal of social pedagogy is to help students develop their social awareness and overall well-being. Moral instruction and the teaching of values are essential.
  2. Critical Pedagogy: It aims to comprehend and dissect various problems and issues that arise in daily life. It motivates the student to delve further and attempt to comprehend their thoughts and beliefs on a particular subject.
  3. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: This approach aims to take into account the cultural diversity of students. It aids in understanding cultural differences between students and raises awareness of such differences in the classroom.
  4. Socratic pedagogy: It encourages students to learn more from outside sources in addition to what is taught to them. This aids the students in coming up with new approaches to the issues.

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History of Pedagogy

In Ancient Greece, where teaching was regarded as an art form, the position of teacher first appeared. Only the most affluent members of society could afford to enrol their kids in school, and teachers played a crucial role in the educational process. Children were exposed to their knowledge and wisdom throughout their instruction, and they internalised it.

The first pedagogues, however, weren’t these teachers. Because they were too important to do it themselves, wealthy families used slaves to accompany their kids to and from school. These slaves were seen as knowledgeable about the ways of the world and shared their knowledge with the kids they were watching over. This concept is where the word “pedagogue” originated.

It roughly translates to “leader of children” and refers to a person who mentors and instructs young people — not just academically, but also morally and spiritually.

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Pedagogy Methods

Pedagogy has helped students and teachers find interesting effective ways of facilitating learning and teaching. Let’s understand the various methods of pedagogy.

  • Teacher-Centred Approach to Learning
  • Student-Centred Approach to Learning
  • High Technology Approach to Learning (Hi-tech)
  • Low Technology Approach to Learning (Low-tech)

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The methods are further divided into two parts, Teacher centric methods and Student-centric methods.

Teacher-Centred Pedagogy Methods

  • Direct Instruction
  • Direct Instruction 
  • Kinesthetic Learning 

Student-Centred Pedagogy Methods 

  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Inquiry-based Learning
  • Expeditionary Learning
  • Personalized Learning
  • Game-based Learning

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Importance of Pedagogy

Because it provides teachers with insight into the best procedures for a classroom environment, pedagogy is crucial. It enables them to comprehend how various students learn in order to modify their lessons to meet these needs.

Since the students will find it engaging, this will enhance their teaching effectiveness. You can develop more meaningful lesson plans by paying attention to the theories you use and how kids are engaging with them.

The development of a better, more cooperative relationship between teachers and their students is facilitated by an understanding of and application of sound pedagogy. Both parties have a mutual understanding, and you are working towards a common objective. Additionally, the appropriate pedagogy enables teachers to track their student’s academic development.

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The following details underline the significance of pedagogy:

  • By increasing the student’s receptivity during lessons, pedagogy can enhance the overall quality of instruction. This raises the student’s level of involvement and contribution throughout the learning process.
  • Education is delivered to students using a variety of learning styles thanks to a well-developed pedagogy. It allows students to gain a more comprehensive and meaningful understanding of a particular subject.
  • For students with special needs or students who are members of underrepresented groups or minorities, a strong pedagogical approach is necessary. The strategy helps these students meet their needs and better integrate them into the larger learning community.
  • Students can develop higher-order skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation with the help of effective pedagogy.

Learn more about Pedagogy below.

Source: Team Satchel


How many approaches are there in pedagogy?

To teach and learn, there are five different pedagogical approaches (2C-2I-1R). Each one differs slightly, allowing teachers to select the approach that works best for their students. Frequently, a mix of these strategies works best.

What are the 5 approaches of pedagogy?

The constructivist approach, the collaborative approach, the reflective approach, the integrative approach, and the inquiry-based approach are the five different pedagogical approaches.

What is the meaning of pedagogy in B.Ed?

The term “pedagogy,” which is pronounced “peh-duh-gow-jee,” describes the approach teachers take to teaching, both in theory and in practice. The teaching philosophy of an educator shapes their pedagogy, which is concerned with how culture and various learning styles interact.

Technology has completely revolutionized the educational landscape. It has equally helped millions of students to establish a prosperous careers. The unique approaches and learning methods of Pedagogy have proved to be useful and beneficial in transforming the traditional approach to teaching. If you are planning to build your career in Teaching, sign up for a free 30-minute career counselling with our Leverage Edu experts and we will guide in you finding the suitable course and university that can equip you with the imperative knowledge and training to follow the path of an educator!

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