Have you ever wondered why we need a Constitution, or how the Constitution came to be written, or who wrote it Social Science covers a chapter in Class 8 The Indian Constitution that answers all your questions whether you are still in school or preparing for competitive exams or just reading for fun. You will also learn about the key features of the Indian Constitution. CBSE Notes Class 8 Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of the principles that shape a liberal constitution, and then key features of Indian constitutions are detailed.
Class 8 The Indian Constitution
Society has fundamental laws that describe and differentiate it from other types of societies. Constitutive laws are formed by agreement in significant cultures where different groups of citizens co-exist. In developed nations, this agreement is available in written form, which we call a Constitution.
The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was formed in December 1946. The Constituent Assembly consisted of 300 members in 1946. It was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The Constituent Assembly completed the work in two years, eleven months, and eighteen days. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.
Need for Constitution in a Country
All democratic nations are likely to have a constitution, although this does not imply that all countries with a constitution are democratic. The Constitution serves many functions, which are described below. A Constitution outlines the fundamental principles of our civilization.. A constitution serves as a collection of laws and standards that the citizens of a nation should rely upon as the foundation for how the country should be ruled.
Three Significant Reasons Why We Need a Constitution
- In democratic societies, the Constitution also develops laws to prevent our elected officials from abusing their power.
- The Constitution prohibits a ruling party from using its influence against less influential individuals or classes.
- The Constitution protects us from actions that may jeopardize the broader values of which the nation trusts.
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Key Features of Class 8 The Indian Constitution
In 1946, a party of 300 people formed the Constituent Assembly and adopted India’s Constitution. While writing the Indian Constitution, these members considered the various communities that speak different languages, practice different religions, and have distinct cultures.
The main features of the Indian Constitution are listed below:
- Federalism: This applies to the fact that the country has more than one level of government. In India, there are governments at the state and central levels, as well as Panchayati Raj at the village level. The Constitution has lists that outline the topics on which each tier of government may pass legislation. Besides that, the Constitution specifies where each tier of government can income in the form of the function that it does. Laws and laws proposed by both of these tiers of government control all citizens in India.
2. Parliamentary Form of Government: The people of India have a clear influence on who their leaders are. Besides that, every resident of the world, regardless of social status, is eligible to vote in elections.
3. Separation of Powers: There are three branches of government:
- The legislature: The assembly refers to the people’s elected officials.
- The executive: a smaller group of individuals who are in charge of enforcing rules and running the country.
- The judiciary: applies to India’s justice system.
Each of the above-mentioned government organs serves as a check on the others. This maintains the balance of power among all three.
4. Directive Principles of State Policy: The Constitution has a section called Directive Principles of State Policy in addition to Fundamental Rights. It ensures greater social and economic reforms and serves as a roadmap for independent Indian states to implement laws and policies that contribute to the reduction of mass poverty.
A secular state is one in which the government does not formally support any particular religion as the state religion.
The Constitution is critical in setting out the values that we want all people of the republic, and the leaders we elect to rule us, to adhere to.
The Fundamental Rights are referred to as the Indian Constitution’s “conscience.” Fundamental Rights protect people from the state’s arbitrary and absolute exercise of authority. Individuals’ rights are written in the Constitution both against the State and against other individuals.
There are six Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, which are:
- Right to Equality
- Right to Freedom
- Right against Exploitation
- Right to Freedom of Religion
- Cultural and Education as Rights
- Right to Constitution Remedies
Description of Fundamental Rights
Here are the details on each Fundamental Right that Indian Constitution has mentioned:
- Right to Equality: Before the constitution, everyone is equal. This ensures that all citizens would be equally served by the country’s rules. It also notes that no citizen can face discrimination because of their religion, caste, or gender. Everyone has equal access to all public spaces, including playgrounds, restaurants, and stores. In terms of jobs, the government cannot discriminate against anyone.
- Right to Freedom: This includes the freedom of expression and association, the freedom to travel freely and live in any part of the country, and the right to practice any trade, career, or industry.
- Right against Exploitation: The Constitution prohibits human trafficking, slave labor, and the employment of children under the age of 14.
- Right to Freedom of Religion: Religious freedom is guaranteed to all men. Any person has the right to practice, profess, and spread the religion of their choosing.
- Cultural and Educational Rights: According to the Constitution, all linguistic and religious minorities have the right to provide their own educational institutions in order to protect and cultivate their culture.
- Right to Constitutional Remedies: This allows citizens to file a petition if they feel the State has violated any of their Fundamental Rights.
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Class 8 Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution: Summary
Students will learn about the Indian Constitution and how it has evolved to create a healthy governance structure for the people of the country in this chapter of NCERT Civics for Class 8. In this chapter, the author talks about how crucial the Constitution is to a democracy. This chapter has a detailed discussion of the fundamental elements of the Indian Constitution. The key components of the Indian Constitution are listed below:
- Federalism is the existence of multiple governmental levels.
- Each and every person of the nation, regardless of caste or religion, has the right to vote under a parliamentary form of government.
- Separation of powers: the three branches of government (legislature, executive branch, and judiciary)
- Fundamental Rights: According to the Indian Constitution, each and every person of the nation is entitled to the six main fundamental rights.
- A nation that supports religious liberty for all of its residents is described as secular.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution
There are various reasons why a democratic country needs a Constitution:
The Constitution mentions the fundamental ideas on which we as people aspire to live in our society.
It describes the very nature of society.
To describe the essence of the country’s political structure
It provides a set of laws by which citizens of various faiths and cultures will coexist peacefully.
People in a democracy are responsible for choosing their representatives. However, there is still the risk that politicians will abuse their power and use it for the wrong reasons. As a result, the constitution has safeguards to protect the government from such abuses of authority.
(a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.
The college’s ten female teachers constitute a minority. It is critical to consider female teachers’ points of view because, despite being a minority, their viewpoints are very significant. No decision taken with the majority’s opinions in mind can cause confusion for the female teachers.
(b) In a city, 5 percent of the population are Buddhists.
The city’s 5% Buddhist population is the city’s minority. Their opinions should be taken into consideration. They should not be disrespected simply because they are a minority with differing religious views. Every decision should be made with the religious sentiments of the Buddhist people in mind.
(c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 percent are vegetarians.
The non-vegetarians, who make up 20% of the population, are in the minority here. The food cooked in the factory shambles must be suitable for both vegetarians and non-vegetarians.
(d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.
In this scenario, the minority consists of 10 students who do not come from wealthy backgrounds. It is important to keep their perspectives in mind since they could be unable to contribute to the considerable expenses imposed by the school and should not be humiliated as a result.
Separation of Powers
Parliamentary Form of Government
Federalism: It is critical to recognize that citizens live at various levels and that no one level of government can rule them. As a result, forming a government at various stages is critical. For example, the Panchayati Raj is in charge of the village, the state government is in charge of the state, and the Central Government is in charge of the whole region.
Separation of Powers: There are three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. – of these organs possesses unique order attributes and performs distinct functions. Therefore, to prevent anyone branch of government from exploiting authority, the Constitution states that each of these organs shall have distinct powers.
Fundamental Rights: The Fundamental Rights are a collection of rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all world citizens. These rights include the Right to Freedom, the Right to Equality, the Right against Exploitation, the Right to Religious Freedom, the Right to Cultural and Educational Rights, and the Right to Constitutional Remedies. These rights give every resident of the country the right to be treated equally, be free of discrimination based on race, culture, or religion, equal educational opportunities, and be treated equally in the eyes of the law.
Parliamentary Form of Government: A democratic democracy is one in which people have the freedom to vote for their members. When the Constitution was written, it was ensured that any resident of the land, regardless of caste, color, ethnicity, or religion, would have the right to elect their representatives by universal suffrage, which means that the right to vote would be granted to everyone.
2. Look at the wordings of the two documents given below. The first column is from the 1990 Nepal Constitution. The second column is from the more recent Constitution of Nepal.
|1990 Constitution of Nepal Part 7: Executive||2015 Constitution of Nepal Part 7: Federal Executive|
|Article 35: Executive Power: The executive power of the Kingdom of Nepal shall be vested in his Majesty and the Council of Ministers||Article 75: Executive Power: The Executive Power of Nepal shall, pursuant to this Constitution and law, be vested in the Council of Ministers|
What is the difference in who exercises ‘Executive Power’ in the above two Constitutions of Nepal?
Answer: The powers to rule the government, set laws, and manage the country are all invested in the King of Nepal and the Ministers named under him, according to Article 35 of the Nepalese Constitution of 1990. However, Article 75 of Nepal’s 2015 Constitution states that the country’s rules, governance, and management will be based on the laws specified in the country’s Constitution and will be overseen by the Ministers.
Advantages of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 1
Using the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 1 has the following advantages:
- The NCERT Solutions fully follow the most recent CBSE curriculum and regulations.
- To facilitate visual learning, illustrations, graphs, and charts are provided in the solutions.
- Clear and clear language is used to describe fundamental concepts.
- The most trustworthy study resource for students preparing for exams.
Federalism, parliamentary government, separation of powers, fundamental rights, independent judiciary, and secularism are some of the key features of the Indian constitution.
Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar is known as the father of the Indian constitution. The constituent Assembly set up a drafting committee on 29th August 1947.
The Drafting Committee has drafted the Indian constitution. It was set up by the constituent assembly. The chairman of this committee was Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar. The final draft of the constitution was signed and accepted on 26th January 1950.
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