What is Golden Revolution?

What is Golden Revolution

Amongst the phenomenal periods in the history of Agricultural development in India, Golden Revolution is a renowned mention you might come across. The Golden Revolution actually referred to as a period of agricultural development in India which integrally focused on the development of horticulture and honey production. This blog brings you a detailed analysis of the question of what is the Golden Revolution.

What is Golden Revolution?

Golden Revolution happened between 1991 to 2003 in India and is marked by increased productivity in the areas of horticulture, honey and fruit production. Nirpakh Tutej is called the Father of Golden Revolution because of his immense contribution in leading this imperative agricultural movement. The changes that were adopted during this period included the use of new technologies to assist and increase the production of honey and horticulture products such as flowers, fruits, spices, vegetables and plantation crops. The planned investments in the area of horticulture attained high productivity, with the sector emerging as a sustainable livelihood option. Golden Revolution is an important concept often asked in UPSC exams under Static GK. It is mainly related to the top Agricultural revolutions in India along with Grey Revolution, Blue Revolution, Black Revolution, White Revolution, amongst others.

Credits – Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Prior to 1990, there was a lack of focus on the development of the horticultural sector in India. The focus then was primarily on the developments in the production of food grains, also known as the Green Revolution. Post-1990, horticulture received increased attention from the government, leading to the period being distinguished by labelling it the Golden Revolution. Here are some of its major advantages:

  • There was a shift in cropping patterns, focusing on the crops yielding higher returns.
  •  There was an increased improvement in cultivation techniques.
  •  There was a noticeable increase in the area of harvesting.

Do You Know: Nirpakh Tutej is considered as the Father of Golden Revolution in India!


Now that you have gained an idea about this revolution, let us have a look at the importance of Golden Revolution:

  • India has today become the leading country in the world in the production of various fruits including mangoes, coconuts, bananas etc.
  • The country is also referred to as the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
  • There has been a great improvement in the economic conditions of farmers engaged in the sector.
  • There has been a generation of huge employment opportunities, especially for rural women.
  • The horticulture sector has emerged as an area offering sustainable livelihood.

National Horticulture Mission

In order to increase the production in the horticulture sector, the National Horticulture Mission was established by the government in the year 2005-2006. It was a national mission and all the states participated in it. The funds were provided by the government on various schemes, steps and policies presented by individual states to contribute to the mission. In 2005, the total area under cultivation was 11.72 million hectares with a production of 150.73 million tons. Due to the implementation of this mission, in 20015-16, the overall area under cultivation was recoded as 23.2 million hectares with the cultivation of 281 million tons. The remarkable increase in the overall production of fruits and vegetables after the introduction of the horticulture mission made India the second largest in the world, just after China. 

Difference Between Golden Revolution and Green Revolution

Once you have understood the key essentials of this movement, we have listed down some of the differences between the Golden Revolution and the Green Revolution, both of which contributed to the agronomical sector in India:

Golden Revolution Green Revolution
-It happened between 1991-2003.
-Led to an increase in the production of Horticulture,
honey and fruits.
-As a result, India has become a leading producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
-It began in India during the mid-1960s.
-Led to an increase in the production of food grains such as rice and wheat.
-As a result, India attained self-sufficiency in the production of rice, wheat etc.

Golden Revolution UPSC Notes

As Golden Revolution is one of the most popular topics in UPSC, it is important to remember its key dates as well as facts to ace your UPSC exam. Here are some of the important pointers for preparing for Golden Revolution for UPSC:

  • The period between 1991 and 2003 is referred to as the Golden Revolution in India.
  • IT is related to the increased production of honey and horticulture which was the main objective of this agricultural revolution.
  • Nirpakh Tutej is the father of Golden Revolution.
  • It is one of the prominent agricultural/agrarian revolutions in India and other revolutions include, Golden Fibre Revolution, Green Revolution, White Revolution, Silver Fibre Revolution, Yellow Revolution, Red Revolution, etc.
  • The scope of Golden Revolution is focused mainly on the boost of honey and horticulture production as horticulture exports in India faced a massive increase from ₹ 6308.53 crores in 2004- 2005 to ₹ 28,62861 crores in 2014-2015.
  • It certainly revolutionised the agricultural sector with a grand increase in the production of honey and horticulture and the government of India also started the National Horticulture Mission in 2005-2006 with the aim to increase further production. Owing to this factor of increase in growth in the horticulture sector in India, Golden Revolution has become an important topic in UPSC, government exams, bank exams, etc.

UPSC & Competitive Exam Questions

Being an important topic, there are many questions asked in competitive examinations regarding this event and its essential features. To help you brush up your knowledge on this topic, we have collated a list of important questions for Golden Revolution for UPSC, Government, Bank and Railway Exams:

1. The Golden Revolution is related to ______?

  1. Fruits
  2. Jute
  3. Cotton
  4. Wheat

2. Horticulture cultivation was increased during the _______?

  1. Golden Revolution
  2. Pink Revolution
  3. Green Revolution
  4. None of the above

3. The period between 1991-2003 is known as the _______?

  1. Black Revolution
  2. Grey Revolution
  3. Golden Revolution
  4. Pink Revolution

4. Which of the following fruits are hugely produced in India making the country the biggest producer?

  1. Lychee
  2. Mango
  3. Orange
  4. Apple

5. Which of these was a part of the Golden Revolution in India?

  1. Honey Production
  2. Oilseed Production
  3. Foodgrain Production
  4. Milk Production

6. Who is considered the Father of the Golden Revolution?

  1. Sam Pitroda
  2. Nirpakh Tutej
  3. Durgesh Patel
  4. M.S. Swaminathan

7. Honey production gained importance during the ______?

  1. Yellow Revolution
  2. Grey Revolution
  3. Golden Revolution
  4. Fibre Revolution

8. India has become the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world as a result of?

  1. Pink Revolution
  2. Red Revolution
  3. Golden Revolution
  4. Black Revolution


  1. i
  2. i
  3. iii
  4. ii
  5. i
  6. ii
  7. iii
  8. iii 

[BONUS] Color Revolutions in India

Name of the Revolution Association
Black Revolution Petroleum
Golden Revolution Horticulture and Honey
Brown Revolution Leather, Cocoa
Grey Revolution Fertilizer
Blue Revolution Fish
Silver Revolution Eggs
White Revolution Dairy Farming

Project on Golden Revolution

Credits – Slideshare

Hope this blog has answered all your queries regarding what is the Golden Revolution. Struggling with your career choices? Unsure about which course to pursue to steer towards your dream career? Our Leverage Edu experts are here to guide you at every step of your academic and professional journey thus ensuring that you make informed decisions towards a rewarding career.

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