Basic Physics Formulas & Notes for Competitive Exams

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Basic Physics Formulas

Do you ever think about why the sky is blue or how the gravity works? Physics essentially studies how the fundamental constituents of our universe interact. Comprising an imperative part of the syllabus for many competitive exams organised for admission into engineering and technical programmes, this discipline constitutes a varied range of sub-fields ranging from quantum physics to nuclear physics. This blog aims to provide you with a comprehensive list of basic Physics formulas that you must know to ace your chosen competitive exam.

Check Out: English for Competitive Exams

List of Basic Physics Formulas

Here are some basic physics formulas for competitive exams-

Basic Physics Formulas Concept Formula
Average Speed Formula It is used to calculate the average speed (S) of a moving body for the distance covered (D) as well as the time duration (T). S = d/t
Acceleration Formula Acceleration refers to the rate of change in velocity to the change in time. It is denoted by symbol a. a =(v-u)/t
Density Formula  This formula depicts the denseness of material in a specific given area. P=m/V
Power Formula The capacity to perform an activity is known as Energy. On the other hand, energy spent in carrying out an activity (work) for a particular period of time is termed as Power. P=W/t
Newton’s Second Law

Using the formula, the force can be expressed by the product of mass and acceleration of the body. F = ma
Weight Formula

The formula measures the force with which an object falls due to gravity. W=mg
Pressure Formula Pressure refers to the amount of force applied per unit area of the object. P=F/A
Ohm’s Law Formula

Ohm’s law states that the current passing through a conductor material is directly proportional to the potential difference between two endpoints of the conductor. V= I × R
Kinetic Energy Formula Kinetic energy is the energy that is possessed by a body due to its state of motion. E = 1/2 mv²
Frequency Formula

Frequency refers to the revolutions completed per second or as the number of wave cycles. F =v/λ
Pendulum Formula This equation calculates how long the pendulum takes swing back and forth in seconds T = 2π√Lg
Fahrenheit Formula This is a conversion formula for a temperature.  F = (9/5× °C) + 32
Work Formula The work formula measures the multiplication of magnitude of displacement d and the component of the force.  W = F × d × cosθ
Torque Formula Torque is rotational force or turning effect. It measures the magnitude of  T = F × r × sinθ
Displacement Formula Refers to the change in the object’s position from its initial place to its final position. D = Xf–Xi = ΔX
Mass Formula This formula represents the relationship between force and mass. Here, F = force, m = mass, and a = acceleration. F = ma or m = F/m
  1. Average Speed Formula

Using this Physics formula, we can calculate the average speed (S) of a moving body for the distance covered (D) as well as the time duration (T).

Average Speed Formula
Average Speed Formula
  1. Density Formula 

This formula depicts the denseness of material in a specific given area.

Density Formula
Density Formula 
  1. Acceleration Formula

Acceleration is the rate of change velocity with respect to the change in time. 

Acceleration Formula
Acceleration Formula
  1. Power Formula

The capacity to perform an activity is known as Energy. On the other hand, energy spent in carrying out an activity (work) for a particular period of time is termed as Power.

Power Formula
Power Formula
  1. Pressure Formula 

The amount of force applied per unit of an area is referred to as the pressure of an object. 

Pressure Formula
Pressure Formula 
  1. Ohm’s Law Formula

Amongst the popular Physics formulas, the Ohm’s Law is explained as the current (I) passing through some conductor material is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) between the two endpoints of the conductor.

Ohm’s Law Formula
Ohm’s Law Formula

Exploring Physics formulas? Check out Trigonometry Formulas for Quantitative Section in Competitive Exams

Basic Physics Notes

To crack any competitive exam, familiarizing oneself with the syllabus and exam pattern is of paramount importance. Considering the vast number of applicants every year, one cannot deny the fact that, to grab a tantalizing score you must learn the intricacies on your tips. Often, the important concepts are prepared by everyone but what fetches the extra marks there is the knowledge of the minute concepts of the subjects. While you must strengthen your basic Physics formulas, it is also imperative to go through the fundamental concepts under this subject. To help you strengthen the varied Physics concepts, we have explained some of the frequently asked topics under this discipline. 

Check Out: Analytical Reasoning For Competitive Exams

SI Units

Questions regarding the SI unit are frequently asked in many engineering exams. Here are the key pointers you must remember under SI units along with the basic physics formulas mentioned above. SI units as a concept are given less importance but they hold a very significant presence in questions papers of various exams. Following are some of the important SI you must remember and apply in your basic physics formulas.

Name of the Quantity SI Unit  Name of the Unit 
Mass  Kilogram  Kg
Time  Second s
Length  Metre 
Thermodynamic/ Temperature   Kelvin  K
Electric Current  Ampere  A
Luminous  Candela  Cd
Amount of Substance  Mole  Mole
Electric Resistance  Ohm  Ω
Power  Watt W
Wavelength of Light  Angstrom  Å
Magnetic Induction  Gauss Gs
Electric Charge   Coulomb  C
Atmospheric Pressure  Bar bar
Energy  Joule J
Magnetic Flux Maxwell  Mx
Pressure  Pascal Pa
Force  Newton  N

Important Instruments and Devices 

Most of are only aware of common devices or instruments used in various experiments of physics. These instruments can be incorporated in varied questions to evaluate a student’s understanding of basic physics concepts and formulas. Take a look at the following which enlists these instruments and devices as well as their simplified definitions.

Also Read: LCM and HCF for Competitive Exams

Instruments  Functions 
Speedometer  A device used to measure and display the speed of a vehicle.
Accelerometer   It is a device that measures acceleration.
Dynamometer  Usually, this device is used for measuring the torque, force
as well as the power of a body.
Anemometer  Through this device, we can measure the speed of the wind.
Galvanometer  It is an electromechanical instrument which is utilised for detecting
and indicating the electric current.
Barometer   A barometer is a scientific instrument which has its application in
meteorology and is used to calculate the atmospheric pressure.
Viscometer  Through this device, we can calculate the viscosity of a fluid.
Seismometer  This instrument helps in assessing and measuring the random
motions inside the earth’s crust caused by an earthquake or
volcanic eruption etc. 
Voltmeter  By using a voltmeter, we can measure the electrical potential
difference between two given points 

Practice Questions

  • The width of a door is 40 cm. If it is released by exerting a force of 2 N at its edge (away from the hinges). Compute the torque produced which causes the door to open.
  • A pendulum’s length is 4 meters. It completes one full cycle of 0.25 times every second. The maximum displacement that the pendulum bob reaches is 0.1 meters from the centre. Find out the time period of the oscillation? And what is the displacement after 0.6 seconds?
  • A pendulum has a period of 1.90 s on Earth. What is its period on Mars, where the acceleration of gravity is about 0.37 that on Earth?
  • Let’s consider a man is pushing a lawnmower across a yard and the force that he is applying to the handle is angled down at 60^o from the horizontal plane. Besides, the force has a magnitude of 900 N. So, if he pushes the mower 30 m. Then calculate the work done by the person to move the lawnmower.
  • A wave has a frequency of 50 Hz. It also has a wavelength of 10 m. Find out the speed of the wave?
  • Suppose Geeta leaves Delhi to visit Rohit in Delhi. She decides to travel by train and covers 350 kilometres to the north. Then the track turns back to the south of 125 kilometres. Calculate Geeta’s total displacement using the displacement formula?
  • A box that weighs 250 N is at rest on the floor. If the pressure exerted by the box on the floor is 25,000 Pa, over what area is the box in contact with the floor?
  • The mass of an object happens to be 1 kg. Furthermore, a force of 2 Newton is applied on it. Find out the magnitude and direction of the object’s acceleration.
  • A person’s mass happens to be 70 kg, while the gravity on Earth is 9.8 m/s2. Find out the weight of this person?
  • Calculate the gravitational force which acts upon two objects of masses 15 g and 15 kg which are 11 m apart?


What are the 3 formulas in physics?

These are the three equations: v = u + at. S = ut + 12at2; v2 = u2 + 2as.

What is the most famous physics formula?

E=mc2, one of the most well-known physics equations, deals with energy. The letters E, m, and c in this equation stand for energy, mass, and the speed of light in a vacuum, which is approximately 186,000 miles per second or 3 x 108 metres per second. Albert Einstein, a scientist, created this equation.

What are the 4 laws of physics?

Because they are the only forces in nature that can be observed, these four fundamental forces are referred to as such. Gravitation, electromagnetism, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force are the four fundamental forces.

Thus, we hope that this blog has equipped with the basic physics formulas and concepts you must know while preparing for competitive exams. If you are gearing up for competitive exams like GRE and GMAT, book an online demo session with our Leverage Edu experts and we will guide you through your preparations, providing you with the best study material and exam day tips to crack your exam with flying colours!

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