What is Black Revolution?

4 minute read
Black Revolution

Our country has developed gracefully and has witnessed various hues of revolutions during the process. The Black Revolution is a well-known example of one of them. The Indian Government planned to boost the production of petroleum by mixing ethanol with petrol to produce biodiesel. This caused a major rise in petroleum production in India which is known as the Black revolution. The Ethanol Blended Petrol program was an initiative by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas in January 2003. This year on 10th August India celebrated World Biofuel Day, with the theme “Biofuels towards Atmanirbhar Bharat”. Let’s explore the various features related to the significant Black movement in this blog!

Black Revolution in India

In 1975, India began examining the viability of blending ethanol with petrol and for achieving it, 6 technical committees and 4 study groups were set up to carry on the procedure. Ethanol is a renewable source of energy and is a by-product of the sugar industry and can also be obtained from maize, wheat, etc. Many countries have practised ethanol blending in petrol to reduce vehicle emissions and conserve foreign exchange. Therefore, this practice also helps in reducing the emission of Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which eventually reduces pollution. 

Objectives of the Black Revolution

The growth in the economy of India has increased commercial energy consumption. This has caused higher reliability of oil on a larger scale. The use of biofuels can reduce the dependence on oil and also lessen greenhouse gas emissions. Hence the black revolution takes a significant kick-start on promoting biofuels in India. 

Challenges Faced

  • Less Production: Since ethanol is a product of the sugar industry, sugar mills are the main suppliers of it. However, the production of bioethanol has been insufficient to meet the demands of petrol. This causes a supply of only 50% of bioethanol to the total petrol used. The uncertain price of bioethanol is also one of the
  • Limited Sugarcane Availability: Another challenge faced by the black revolution was the scarcity of sugarcane crops. A quarter of the field will have to be distributed for the production of sugarcane crops, this can cause a major setback for the other crops and lead to inflation. A policy in India’s biofuel production guidelines clearly states that the production of surplus food should not be compromised for fuel requirements. 
  • Lack of Alternatives: The lack of alternatives is a major challenge. Even though Jatropha seeds contain an inedible oil that may be processed and used as biofuel, it has often failed to find a market.
  • Handling issues: Since ethanol is highly flammable, it requires the utmost precautions in handling and transporting the product. Ethanol marks obligatory safety and risk measures in all phases of production.

The Outcome of the Black Revolution

  • Biofuels reduce CO2 emissions along with the reduction in SO2, ozone-forming chemicals and gases that cause air pollution as compared to fossil fuels. 
  • Jatropha plantations also help in the mitigation of soil erosion that occurs due to taproot stabilization. 
  • Biofuels are also be utilised for reforestation in arid locations, water and soil conservation, wind erosion prevention, and dunes stabilisation.

Recent Updates

  • The government has set a compulsion of the blending of 5% ethanol in nine states and four union territories with an excise of Rs 0.75 on-duty exemption.
  • In 2003,  the Committee recommended strengthening of the ongoing program of blending ethanol with petrol & launched a National Mission on Biodiesel obtained from the jatropha plantation. 
  • The government announced a Biodiesel Purchase Policy in 2006. It stated that there will be a fixed purchase price for oil companies at Rs 25 per litre. 5% biodiesel is blended with diesel, but further plans include an extension in blending to 20%.

Understanding the Modern History of Oil

Credits – Geo History (Youtube)

Here is the list of popular revolutions in India:

Name of the RevolutionAssociation
Black RevolutionPetroleum
Golden RevolutionHorticulture and Honey
Brown RevolutionLeather, Cocoa
Grey RevolutionFertilizer
Blue RevolutionFish
Silver RevolutionEggs
White RevolutionDairy Farming
Red RevolutionMeat and Tomato


Q1 – What is the black revolution in India?

The black revolution in India is referred to as the Petroleum Revolution in which India began examining the viability of blending ethanol with petrol.

Q2 – What is the black revolution related to?

The black revolution is related to the petroleum movement in India.

Q3 – Who introduced the Black Revolution in India?

The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas introduced the Black Revolution in India to meet the demands of the coming generations by making ethanol-blended petroleum.

We hope this blog has given you a better understanding of the significance of India’s black revolution/movement. Considering a career in petroleum engineering or chemical engineering, reach out to our experts at Leverage Edu for assistance in determining the ideal program for you. Request an e-meeting with us!

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *