What is Black Revolution?

Black Revolution

Our country has developed gracefully and has witnessed various hues of revolutions during the process. One of them is prominently known as the Balck Revolution. The Indian Government planned to boost the production of petroleum by mixing ethanol with petrol to produce biodiesel. This caused a major rise in petroleum production in India which is known as the Black revolution. The Ethanol Blended Petrol program was an initiative by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas in January 2003. This year on 10th August India celebrated World Biofuel Day, with the theme “Biofuels towards Atmanirbhar Bharat”. Let’s explore the various features related to the significant Black Revolution in this blog!

Black Revolution in India

In 1975, India began examining the viability of blending ethanol with petrol and for achieving it, 6 technical committees and 4 study groups were set up to carry on the procedure. Ethanol is a renewable source of energy and is a by-product of the sugar industry and can also be obtained from maize, wheat, etc. Many countries have practised ethanol blending in petrol to reduce vehicle emissions and conserve foreign exchange. Therefore, this practice also helps in reducing the emission of Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which eventually reduces pollution. 

Objectives of the Black Revolution

The growth in the economy of India has increased commercial energy consumption. This has caused a higher reliability of oil on a larger scale. The use of biofuels can reduce the dependence on oil and also lessen greenhouse gas emissions. Hence the black revolution takes a significant kick-start on promoting biofuels in India. 

Challenges Faced

  • Less Production: Since ethanol is a product of the sugar industry, sugar mills are the main suppliers of it. However, the production of bioethanol has been insufficient to meet the demands of petrol. This causes a supply of only 50% of bioethanol to the total petrol used. The uncertain price of bioethanol is also one of th
  • Limited Sugarcane Availability: Another challenge faced by the black revolution was the scarcity of sugarcane crops. A quarter of the field will have to be distributed for the production of sugarcane crops, this can cause a major setback for the other crops and lead to inflation. A policy in India’s biofuel production guidelines clearly states that the production of surplus food should not be compromised for fuel requirements. 
  • Lack of Alternatives: The lack of alternatives is a major challenge. Although the seeds of Jatropha contain an inedible oil that can be converted and used as biofuel, it has often resulted in being unsuccessful in the market. 
  • Handling issues: Since ethanol is highly flammable, it requires the utmost precautions in handling and transporting the product. Ethanol marks obligatory safety and risk measures in all phases of production.

The Outcome of Black Revolution

  • Biofuels reduce CO2 emissions along with the reduction in SO2, ozone-forming chemicals and gases that cause air pollution as compared to fossil fuels. 
  • Jatropha plantations also help in the mitigation of soil erosion that occurs due to taproot stabilization. 
  • Biofuels can also be used for reforestation in arid areas, help in water and soil conservation, prevent wind erosion and stabilize sand dunes. 

Recent Updates

  • The government has set a compulsion of the blending of 5% ethanol in nine states and four union territories with an excise of Rs 0.75 on-duty exemption.
  • In 2003,  the Committee recommended strengthening of the ongoing program of blending of ethanol with petrol & launched a National Mission on Biodiesel obtained from the jatropha plantation. 
  • The government announced a Biodiesel Purchase Policy in 2006. It stated that there will be a fixed purchase price for oil companies at Rs 25 per litre. Initially, 5% biodiesel was blended with diesel, but further plans include an extension in blending to 20%.

Understanding the Modern History of Oil

Credits – Geo History (Youtube)
Name of the Revolution Association
Black Revolution Petroleum
Golden Revolution Horticulture and Honey
Brown Revolution Leather, Cocoa
Grey Revolution Fertilizer
Blue Revolution Fish
Silver Revolution Eggs
White Revolution Dairy Farming
Red Revolution Meat and Tomato


Q1 – What is the black revolution in India?

Black revolution in India is referred to the petroleum revolution in which India began examining the viability of blending ethanol with petrol

Q2 – What is black revolution related to?

Black revolution is related to the petroleum revolution in India.

Hope this blog helped you understand the significance of the Black revolution in India.  If you are interested in Petroleum Engineering or Chemical Engineering, then get in touch with our experts at Leverage Edu and get guidance in choosing the right program. Sign up for an e-meeting with us!

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