‘Drainage’ is a term that defines an area’s river system. A drainage basin or river basin is an area that is drained by a single river system. A water division is considered an upland that divides two irrigation systems that are adjacent to each other. In this blog, we discuss drainage class 9 notes in detail.
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The river system is an important part of the drainage class 9 notes. The river system has fine details which are mentioned below.
- On the basis of origin, the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers are the two river systems of India.
- Rainfed and snowfed Himalayan rivers have water in them during the winter season, i.e. they are seasonal.
- In the upper course, Himalayan rivers conduct intensive erosion activity.
- They bring immense amounts of silt and sand along the lower course.
- Himalayan rivers are created by meanders, oxbow lakes and other depositional features along their course.
- The seasonal peninsular rivers are mostly dependent on rainfall.
- Much of Peninsular India’s rivers originate from the Western Ghats and drain to the Bay of Bengal.
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The Rivers of The Himalaya
The rivers of Himalaya are another important part of the drainage class 9 notes. The details of which are mentioned below.
- A river can be considered a river system, along with its tributaries.
- The Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra are the main Himalayan rivers.
- The System of The Indus River
- The Indus rises near Lake Mansarovar in Tibet, and reaches India in the Jammu and Kashmir district of Ladakh.
- With a total length of 2900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers in the world.
- In compliance with the Indus Water Treaties in 1960, India and Pakistan distributed Indus river water.
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The River Channel of The Ganga
The river channel of the Ganga forms an imperative part of the drainage class 9 notes. They are mentioned below.
- ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier.
- It is joined by the Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
- Ganga encounters Himalayan tributaries such as Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi.
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The River Brahmaputra System
The Brahmaputra river system is a major part of the rivers in India and therefore an important part of our drainage class 9 notes.
- The bulk of its course lies outside of India, very close to the sources of Indus and Satluj.
- It takes a ‘U’ turn to meet Namcha Barwa.
- The tributaries which join the Brahmaputra are Dibang, Lohit and Kenula.
- In Assam, the Brahmaputra has a braided channel along its length to create several riverine islands.
- The Brahmaputra is characterised, unlike other northern Indian rivers, by immense deposits of silt on its bed, allowing the riverbed to rise.
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The Rivers Of The Peninsular
The rivers of the peninsular area of our country are also a pertinent part of our river system. They are also an important part of drainage class 9 notes.
- In peninsular India, the Western Ghats form the major water divide.
- Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri discharge into the Bay of Bengal.
- The only rivers which flow west into the Arabian Sea are the Tapi and Narmada.
- The peninsular river drainage basins are relatively small in number.
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The Basin of Narmada
The basin of Narmada also finds mention in drainage class 9 notes.
- Narmada flows to create a gorge in Madhya Pradesh’s marble rocks.
- It originates in the Amarkantak Hills.
- In a rift valley formed due to faulting, Narmada flows towards the west.
- It flows in the shape of a deep gorge in the marble rocks near Jabalpur and Dhuandhar falls are picturesque areas.
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The Basin of The Tapi
The basin of Tapi is also an important part of the drainage class 9 notes.
- Madhya Pradesh, originating in Betul, stretches from Satpura.
- It also runs parallel to Narmada in a rift valley, but is much shorter than Narmada.
- A basin that encompasses Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra flows by Tapi.
- The main rivers flowing west are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha and Periyar.
The Basin of Godavari
The basin of Godavari is an important part of the river system of India. It finds mention in drainage class 9 notes as well.
- Godavari starts in Maharashtra’s Nashik district and is about 1500 km from the main peninsular dam.
- Its great basin includes most parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
- Godavari is also remembered as the Dakshin Ganga because of its length.
- Through the Bay of Bengal, Godavari flows.
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The Basin of Mahanadi
The basin of Mahanadi finds mention in drainage class 9 notes. Its important points are mentioned below.
- In Chhattisgarh, the Mahanadi, a river 860 km long, rises to flow through Orissa to meet the Bay of Bengal.
- The Mahanadi river basin is divided by Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
The Basin of Krishna
The basin of Krishna also finds mention in drainage class 9 notes. Its important points are summarized below.
- From a spring near Mahabaleshwar, the 1400 km long Krishna river rises.
- It enters the Bay Of Bengal.
- Among Krishna’s tributaries are the Bhima, Musi, Ghatprabha, Koyana and Tungabhadra.
- The Krishna basin is divided by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Basin of Kaveri
The basin of Kaveri is yet another important part of our river system. It finds mention in drainage class 9 notes.
- The Kaveri enters the Bay of Bengal at Kaveripatnam.
- It originates in the Brahmagiri region of the Western Ghats.
- It shares its basin with Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- The second largest waterfall in India is the Kaveri Dam, known as Sivasamudram.
- There are other smaller rivers, such as Damodar, Brahmani, Baitarani and Subarnlekha.
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The reservoirs of our country are an essential part of our river system. They are a part of drainage class 9 notes.
- The majority of lakes are permanent, while some only produce water in the rainy season.
- Cut-offs that later grow into oxbow lakes form a channel meandering through a floodplain.
- Glacial lakes are formed as glaciers dig out a basin that is then filled with snowmelt.
- Tectonic activity occurs from such lakes, such as Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir. In addition to natural dams, the damming of the rivers has also contributed to the creation of lakes for hydel power production.
- Lakes help to manage the flow of river water, stop floods, help to develop hydropower, moderate environment, protect marine environments, increase natural beauty, develop tourism and provide leisure.
- Rivers have an important position in the economy. Rivers are water bodies that are natural. River bank villages also grew into towns.
- Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, the production of hydropower, both important to India, and the agricultural economy.
It is important to understand river pollution and its effects in our study of drainage class 9 notes.
- River water quality is impaired by increasing demand from residential, municipal, industrial and agricultural sources.
- The river is drained into a heavy load of raw waste.
- Effluents damage the river’s self-cleaning property.
- Concern over rising contamination in our waterways has contributed to the introduction of different river cleaning action plans.
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Therefore we come to the end of our blog. This was all about the Drainage System In Class 9. If you have any queries or doubts related to the application process, then reach out to Leverage Edu experts. Sign up for a free session today.