NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Notes: Mineral and Power Resources (Free PDF)

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Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Notes

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 let us explore Mineral and Power Resources. It talks about types of minerals, where they are found, how they are made and other things about them. This chapter is under the Social Science Class 8 Syllabus and has an important weightage in the exams. So, let’s start reading the important notes on Mineral and Power Resources Class 8.

The PDF of the chapter is available here.

Brief Notes on Mineral and Power Resources NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3

Mineral – A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed and are concentrated in a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are found in areas which are not easily accessible such as the Arctic Ocean bed and Antarctica. Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments under varying conditions by natural processes without any human interference.

Types of Minerals

Minerals can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical properties such as solubility. There are over three thousand different minerals. On the basis of composition minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have a characteristic luster or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore are some of the examples. Metallic minerals may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and chromite contain iron. A non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.

Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. Limestone, mica and gypsum are some examples of such minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are non-metallic minerals.

Source: Physicswallah

Extraction of Minerals

In the chapter, Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 notes, Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying. The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer known as open-cast mining. Deep bores called shafts have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths and are called shaft mining.

Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out which is called drilling.

 Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out by the process known as quarrying.

Check Notes On Other Social Science Chapters:

Distribution of Minerals

As per the chapter, Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 notes, Minerals occur in different types of rocks like igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. Generally metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.

  • Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals like limestone.
  •  Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.

The distribution of minerals in the continents is given below –


China and India have large iron ore deposits. The continent produces more than half of the world’s tin. China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers. China also leads in the production of lead, antimony and tungsten. Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.


Europe is the leading producer of iron ore in the world. The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France. Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in Eastern Europe and European Russia.

North America

The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones – the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, and coal in the Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.

South America

Brazil is the largest producer of high-grade iron ore in the world. Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper. Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin. South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond. Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.


Africa is rich in mineral resources and is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum. South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold. The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.


Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world. It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel. It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese. Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of Western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.


The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, some probably large. Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted. Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.

Uses of Minerals

In the chapter, Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 notes that minerals are used in many industries. 

  • Minerals which are used for gems are usually hard. These are then set in various styles for jewellery. 
  • Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes. 
  • Silicon, used in the computer industry, is obtained from quartz. 
  • Aluminium obtained from its ore bauxite is used in automobiles and aeroplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen cookware.

Conservation of Minerals

 Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which humans consume these minerals. It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining because it creates pollution and ultimately global warming. Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved. We need to move towards sustainable development to save our environment as well.

Power Resources

Power or energy plays a vital role in our lives. We need power for industry, agriculture, transport, communication and defence. Hence conservation of energy is also essential. Power resources may be broadly categorized as conventional and non-conventional resources.

Conventional Sources

Conventional sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time. Firewood and fossil fuels are the two main conventional energy sources.


It is widely used for cooking and heating. In our country, more than 50 % of the energy used by villagers comes from firewood.

Fossil Fuels

The remains of plants and animals which were buried under the earth for millions of years got converted by heat and pressure into fossil fuels. Fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy. The reserves of these minerals are limited and the rate at which the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation. So these are likely to be exhausted soon.

  • Coal – is the most abundantly found fossil fuel and is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity. Electricity from coal is called thermal power. The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as Buried Sunshine. The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and France. The coal-producing areas of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand.
  • Petroleum – It is found between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields located in off-shore and coastal areas. This is then sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable. The chief petroleum-producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are the USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria. The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
  • Natural Gas – Natural gas is found in petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel. Russia, Norway, the UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas. In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas offshore in Mumbai have natural gas resources. Very few countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own.

Hydel Power

Rainwater or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights and the falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydroelectricity. The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation. One-fourth of the world’s electricity is produced by hydel power. The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China. Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar Valley projects.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

The increasing use of fossil fuels is leading to its shortage and it is estimated that if the present rate of consumption continues the reserves of these fuels will be exhausted. Moreover, their use also causes environmental pollution. Therefore there is a need for using nonconventional sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and tidal energy which are renewable resources and can be produced again and again without problem.

Solar Energy

Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purposes. The technology of utilizing solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sunshine. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, and solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.

Credit: Department of Energy

Wind Energy

Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy. Windmills have been used for grinding grain and lifting water since time immemorial. In modern times windmills the high speed winds rotate the windmill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Wind farms having clusters of such windmills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow. Wind farms found in the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.

Credit: Yokogawa

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power. The greatest producers of nuclear power are the USA and Europe. In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium. Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monazite sands of Kerala. The nuclear power stations in India are located in Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Rana Pratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Nuclear Power Plant

Credit: Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation

Geothermal Energy

Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy. Sometimes this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. Geothermal energy in the form of hot springs has been used for cooking, heating and bathing for several years. The USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America. In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Geothermal Power Plant

Credit: Science

Tidal Energy

Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. It can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings in the sea. During high tide, the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity. Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Tidal Power Plant

Credit: Weebly


Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amounts of organic manure each year.

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3

Credit: ResearchGate

Check Class 8 Science Notes:


What are minerals class 8?

A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed and are concentrated in a particular area or rock formations. Example – iron, silver, copper, lead etc.

What are power resources class 8?

The resources which are used to generate power are called power resources. Example – fossil fuels, hydel power etc.

What are the two main classifications of power resources?

Power resources may be broadly categorized into 2 main classes as conventional and non-conventional resources.

We hope these notes helped you understand the chapter better and will also help you get better marks in exams. For help with other chapters and subjects like English, Maths, Science and others for class 8 please check out Leverage Edu.

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