The full form of MRNA is Messenger Ribonucleic Acid. In simple terms, they are single-stranded RNA molecules that carry genetic code or information from DNA in a cell’s nucleus to ribosomes, which make protein in the cells. These cells are called messenger RNA since they carry instructions for producing proteins from one part of the cell to another. Moreover, mRNAs play a crucial role in protein synthesis since they transcript, decode, and translate the genetic code.
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What are the 3 Parts of mRNA?
The concept of mRNA was introduced by Sydney Brenner, Francis Crick, and Francis Crick in 1960. Later in the year 1961, two teams of scientists worked independently on the processing of mRNA including Brenner, Jacob, and Matthew Messelson in one team and another team including James Watson and his associates.
Like DNA, Messenger Ribonucleic Acid is also made up of three major components:
- Five carbon sugars: These sugars act as the backbone of the mRNA molecule.
- A phosphate group: It is attached to each sugar molecule and gives the mRNA molecule the required negative charge.
- A nitrogenous base: There are four types of nitrogenous bases in mRNA including adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U).
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Benefits of mRNA Vaccines
The role of mRNA vaccines became more prominent during the COVID-19 pandemic due to their increased efficiency than other similar traditional vaccines. Here are the other benefits:
- Enhanced safety: Unlike traditional vaccines that inject living components into the patient’s body, mRNA vaccines have zero risks.
- Fast production: Since these vaccines do not grow in living cells, their manufacturing process is faster than traditional vaccines.
- Effectiveness: They are more effective in fighting diseases caused due to mutated agents.
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