Human Development is an ongoing and continuous process. Right from the day infant is born to age we learn to communicate, read, write and walk. Even when they reach the age of a mature adult, all the stages are part of human development. Humans are always evolving to a better form. Let us delve into the depth of human development class 11 notes.
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Growth And Development
Development is defined as the pattern of orderly and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life. It is a process by which the individual growKos and changes throughout the lifecycle:
- It can be qualitative as well as quantitative in nature.
- Growth refers to an increase in the size of the body parts or of an organism as a whole.
- Growth is quantitative in nature lifespan perspective of development.
- Development is life-long which means that it takes place across all age groups commencing from conception to old age.
- The various processes of human development,i.e biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional are interlinked.
- Development is multi-directional as some components of a given dimension of development may increase while others show a decrement.
- Development is highly plastic which means within the person, modifiability is found within psychological development.
- Development is influenced by historical conditions. The career orientation of students today has undergone a drastic change and it is not the same as it used to be 50 years ago.
- Various disciplines like psychology, anthropology, and sociology study development, and each tries to provide answers to development throughout the lifespan.
- Development is defined as the co-construction of biology, the environment, and the Individual.
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Factors Influencing Development
- Genotype – An actual genetic material or a person’s genetic heritage.
- Phenotype– The way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observable and measurable characteristics; they include physical traits like height, weight, and psychological characteristics like creativity, and intelligence.
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Urie Bronfenbrenner’s contextual view of development focuses on the role of environmental factors in the role of development of an individual:
- Microsystem: It is the immediate environment in which individual lives and a child here directly interacts with the social agents.
- Mesosystem: It represents the fact that what happens in one ecosystem (family) is likely to impact another ecosystem.
- Exosystem: It is defined as the social settings that a person may not experience first-hand but that still influence development.
- Macrosystem: It includes the culture in which the individual lives. The macrosystems are the subcultures and cultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded.
- Chronosystem: It comprises the events in the individual’s course of life and socio-historical situations which influence their development.
The Development Stages
Human life is categorized into 5 development stages. From the day infant is born to old age. Here are all the stages mentioned in the human development class 11 notes:
The age range of Infancy is 0-2 years old
- The newborns are governed by reflexes which are defined as automatic responses to stimuli.
- Some of the reflexes include walking, yawning, blinking, etc.
- Children can hear immediately after birth and they respond well to touch and can hear as well.
- Jean Piaget believed that children are like little scientists as they actively explore the world around them and try to gain an understanding of the same.
- Children lack Object Permanence.
- They prefer familiar faces and are scared of strangers and form a close bond with their caregivers called an attachment.
- Caregivers that are parents reciprocate love and affection to their offspring.
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- Age Range of Childhood is 2-12 years
- Early Development follows principles of cephalocaudally and proximodistal.
- The brain and head grow more rapidly than any other part of the body.
- During middle and late childhood, an increase in weight is due to an increase in the size of the skeletal and muscular systems.
- Children acquire Object Permanence.
- Language Development is one of the hallmarks of this period which is known as symbolic thinking.
- Key concepts during this period are animism in which children attribute feelings to inanimate objects and egocentrism in which children view the world from their point of view only.
- Crucial dimensions of the socio-emotional development of children are Self, Gender and Moral Development.
- Parents and the Socialization process help in forming the self-image of a child.
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- The Age Range of adolescents is 12-19 years.
- Puberty marks the end of childhood and signifies the beginning of adolescence which is characterized by dramatic physical changes in both growth rate and sexual characteristics.
- Hormones released during puberty help in the development of primary and sexual characteristics.
- Puberty in boys is characterized by an acceleration in growth, facial hair, and change in voice and height.
- Puberty in girls is marked by menarche which is the onset of menstruation, the rapid growth of height, etc.
- Adolescent thinking becomes more systematic problem-solving, identifying possible courses of action, understanding the causes and thus seeking solutions accordingly.
- Jean Piaget called this Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning.
- As per David Elkind, Egocentrism prevails during Adolescence in the following manner
1)Personal Fable -Adolescents feel that nobody can understand their feelings.
2) Imaginary Audience –Adolescents believe that everyone is preoccupied with them and hence, become self-conscious.
- Identity Formation also takes place during this stage
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- The Age Range of Adulthood is 20-60 years.
- Physical changes which happen during adulthood due to malnutrition are age spots, wrinkling, yellowing of teeth, weight gain, etc.
- Cognitive abilities decline during adulthood. A memory decline is more In tasks involving long-term memory rather than short-term memory.
- Marriage brings its own set of concerns like the number of children, and availability of resources.
- A lot of adjustments have to be made in marriage keeping in mind each other’s likes, dislikes, and preferences.
- Becoming a parent brings a huge transition and it is accompanied by love for the baby.
- Death of a Spouse during Adulthood has a strong emotional implication on the other person.
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- It starts at 60 years onwards.
- Deterioration in physical development happens like a decline in vision, hearing loss, and changes in physical appearance like grey hair, wrinkles, etc.
- Greater memory decline is witnessed in old age in those tasks which involve long-term memory.
- In old age, fear of death is likely to occur because of chronic illnesses.
- Due to obsession with old memories, the generation gap and the death of a spouse, people become more prone to depression and loneliness.
- There is a loss of energy and enthusiasm as well.
Mesosystem, chronosystem, macrosystem, microsystem, and exosystem play a major role in the overall development of a child as per Urie Bronfenbrenner’s contextual view.
Object permanence, egocentrism, animism, and symbolic thinking are the major cognitive changes and developments which take place in a child
The main features of the life-span perspective on development are that development is lifelong, multi-directional and its various processes like socio-cognitive, and emotional processes are interlinked.
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