Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

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Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

We are very well familiar with the political struggles before independence, but the fifth chapter of class 10 Social Science on ‘Popular struggles and movements’ takes us through a variety of vital incidents post Independence which took place around the globe and brought remarkable changes in the political system of the country.  We will also learn about what is a political party, the meaning of a true political party, and much more about the famous movements through our detailed study notes on Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 notes. So let us begin!  

YouTube: Magnet Brains
nepal
Source: Hindustan Times

In 1990, democracy was established in Nepal. King Birendra, who was the ruler at that time, had accepted democracy. Unfortunately, the king got killed in 2001 in the mysterious massacre of the royal family. Following this, King Gyanendra was announced as the new king of Nepal. But he was against democracy and decided to abolish it. The elected parliament was dismissed by him in the year 2005.

In April 2006, a popular movement was witnessed in Nepal. It aimed to restore democracy and regain control of the government from the king.

A Seven Party Alliance was formed, which had all the major political parties in it. They started a strike for four days in Kathmandu. But this strike was joined by Maoists and many other organizations. The protest soon was an indefinite strike. By 21st April, the number of protestors rose between 3 to 5 lakhs. The demands were to restore the parliament, power must be given to an all-party government along with this a new constituent assembly must be formed. Hence, on the last day of the protest a warning was sent regarding the same and the King accepted it on 24th April 2006. 

The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new prime minister of the interim government. This was Nepal’s second movement towards democracy as stated in the chapter on popular struggles and movements. 

water war bolivia
Source: Water War

Bolivia’s water war is a very commonly asked question in class 10th social science examination. Bolivia is a developing country located in Latin America. The government of Bolivia was pressurized by the World Bank to give up its control of the municipal water supply. For the city of Cochabamba, these rights were sold to a multinational company. A Multinational Company gained control over the water supply, and the price of water was increased four times. As a result, a popular protest was started.  A new alliance known as FEDECOR was formed, including labour, human rights activists, and community leaders. In January 2000, FEDECOR organized a successful four-day strike in Cochabamba. Finally, when the government agreed to negotiate, the strike ended.

But nothing was changed. So, in February, people decided to start the protest again. People were beaten up brutally by the police to stop it. Again in April, a strike started. This time, the government imposed martial law. When the situation got out of control, the officials of the MNC left the city. Hence, the government had no option left but to accept the demands of the people.

As a result, the contract with the MNC was cancelled, and the municipality again provided the water supply at the old cheaper rates. This popular struggle is known as Bolivia’s Water War, which is another important topic of the chapter on popular struggles and movements. 

Also Read: Streams After 10th

Mobilization and Struggles

Moving ahead with the popular struggles and movements class 10 notes, we must understand that behind every big struggle or movement, there are several organizations. Let us have a look at prominent organizations that were a part of the movement that took place in Nepal and Bolivia-

  • In Nepal, the struggle was led by the Seven Party Alliance that included major parties from the parliament.
  • Although the Nepalese Communist Party (Maoists) did not believe in a parliamentary democracy, they joined the struggle.
  • Moreover, the movement was supported by teachers, lawyers, indigenous people, and human rights activists.
  • In Bolivia, the Water War was led by an organization named FEDECOR.
  • The members of FEDECOR were local professionals, farmers, environmentalists, factory workers, students, and homeless street children.
  • Later, the Socialist Party started supporting this movement. This party came to power in Bolivia in 2006.

Science vs Commerce: Which is a Better Choice?

Pressure Groups and Movements

Youtube: School of Political Science

The organizations trying to influence the policies or the government are known as pressure groups. These are groups of people who have the same occupation, interests, aspirations, or opinions. All of them want to achieve the same objective. They make decisions more flexibly and informally. 

Sectional Interest Groups

As stated in the chapter on popular struggles and movements, these are the groups created to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society, such as workers, employees, industrialists, business people, etc. They are concerned only about the members of the group—for example, trade unions, business organizations.

Public Interest Groups

Public Interest Groups are created for the benefit of other people rather than their members. Sometimes, the activities of public interest groups might help the group members and the public—for example, the Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation.

Influence of Pressure Groups and Movements on Politics

The pressure groups achieve their goals by attaining public support and sympathy with the help of information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions, etc. Most often, protest activities are organized, such as strikes or disruption of government programs.

While discussing the chapter on popular struggles and movements, it is important to know that sometimes, these groups are led by leaders of political parties, whereas sometimes political parties evolve out of these movements. But in most cases, the relationship between these movement groups and political parties indicates that their combination is not direct. 

Is Influence Healthy?

The influence of these groups has led to the deepening and strengthening of democracy. They help in reminding the government about the needs and concerns of the citizens. The government is made to understand the demands of different sections and groups. But sometimes, these groups have a narrow agenda and can hijack the public decision in their favour with money. They exercise power without responsibility. However, a single group cannot achieve dominance over society.

List of Important Concepts & Meanings

  • Democracy: A system in which the government of a country is elected by the people
  • Popular Movements: A popular movement is a type of group action also called a social movement
  • Pressure Groups: A group of people who are trying to influence the governement and policies in a country.
  • Political Parties: A group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power
  • Sectional Interest Groups: A group of people who respresent the interest of a specific section.
In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? 

Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a number of ways-
Pressure groups are organisations that influence the policies or the government. These informal groups include people from the same occupation, interests, aspirations, or opinions. They have the same objective and function more flexibly. Pressure groups are not directly involved in the government.
Pressure groups act as sectional interest groups created to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society, such as workers, employees, industrialists, business people, etc. 
Pressure groups achieve their goals by putting pressure on the government and governing bodies. They gave public support and sympathise with the help of information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions, etc. 
They organise protest activities such as strikes or disruption of government programs.

Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party? 
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues. 
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve a larger number of people. 
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do. 
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilize people, while parties do. 

(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve a larger number of people.

Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called _____________________ groups. 

Pressure Groups 

What is a pressure group? Give a few examples. 

Pressure groups are organisations that influence the policies of the government. These informal groups include people from the same occupation, interests, aspirations, or opinions. They have the same objective and function more flexibly. Pressure groups are not directly involved in the government. Examples are BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) and FEDECOR

Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties? 

Pressure groups are organisations that influence the policies or the government. 
These informal groups include people from the same occupation, interests, aspirations, or opinions. They have the same objective and function more flexibly. Pressure groups are not directly involved in the government.

NCERT PDF Political Struggles and Movements

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