Important Articles in Indian Constitution

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Important Articles in Indian Constitution

India is regarded amongst the largest democracies in the world. Our Indian constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, and was formulated with the context of almost 200 years of colonial rule, many freedom struggles, Indian national movement as well as considering communal violence and the country’s glorious history. Considered as the law of the land, it elucidates the powers and limitations of the three vital constituents of the State, i.e. Judiciary, Legislative and Executive. There are various important articles in Indian Constitution providing a common person with their fundamental rights, political code, procedures as well as their duties. Through this blog, we will be exploring the important articles in Indian Constitution and their key features.

What are Articles in IndIian Constitution ? 

The Indian Constitution encompasses a total of 448 articles and each set of these articles correspond to the quintessential laws and guidelines pertaining to Legislatures, Constitutional Bodies, Fundamental Rights, Executive, Parts of Indian Constitution, Statutory Bodies, Schedules, to name a few. In simple terms, an article can be termed as a guideline and is in context to the section included in the different acts. Originally, there were a total of 395 articles in Indian Constitution which were expanded towards 448 with 104 amendments introduced.

An article in the Indian constitution is proper guidelines that define a rule. Moreover, it  is more of a principle which mainly defines an act. The constitution of India whose chief architect was a prolific Indian politician called B.R Ambedkar is an amalgamation of important articles. All those articles are dealing with the ruling framework of government, fundamental rights of a person, election scenario etc. So much so, it is rightly considered as the longest written constitution of any country. 

Most Important Articles in Indian Constitution

While preparing for Indian Polity for government exams and UPSC exams, it is essential to understand the different articles and amendments of the Indian Constitution. So, to help you ace your preparations, we have listed down the most important articles in the Indian Constitution and their features:

Important Articles in Indian ConstitutionDetails
Article 1 Name and territory of the Union
Article 3Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states
Article 13Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights
Article 14Equality before the law
Article 16Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 17Abolition of untouchability
Article 19Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
Article 21Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 21A Right to elementary education
Article 25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 30Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
Article 31 CSaving of laws giving effect to certain Directive Principles
Article 32Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights including writs
Article 38State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people
Article 40The organisation of village panchayats
Article 44Uniform Civil Code for the citizens
Article 45Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.
Article 46Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections
Article 50Separation of judiciary from the executive
Article 51Promotion of international peace and security
Article 51 AFundamental Duties
Article 72Powers of President to grant pardons, suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
Article 74Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President
Article 76Attorney-General of India
Article 78Duties of the Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
Article 110Definition of Money Bills
Article 112Annual Financial Statement (Budget)
Article 123Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament
Article 143Power of President to consult Supreme Court
Article 148Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
Article 149Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
Article 155Appointment of the Governor
Article 161Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
Article 163Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor
Article 165Advocate-General of the state which British Laws are still used in India
Article 167Duties of Chief Minister with regard to the furnishing of information to the Governor, etc.
Article 168Constitution of Legislatures in the states
Article 169Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in the states
Article 170Composition of Legislative Assemblies in the states
Article 171Composition of Legislative Councils in the states
Article 172Duration of State Legislatures
Article 173Qualification for membership of the State Legislature
Article 174Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
Article 178Speakers and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
Article 194Powers, privileges, and immunity of Advocate-General
Article 200Assent to bills by the governor (including reservation for President)
Article 202Annual financial statement of the State Legislature
Article 210Language to be used in the State Legislature
Article 212Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the State Legislature  
Article 213Power of governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of the State Legislature
Article 214High courts for the states
Article 217Appointment and the conditions of the office of the judge of a High Court
Article 226Power of high courts to issue certain writs
Article 239AASpecial provisions with respect to Delhi
Article  243BConstitution of Panchayats
Article 243CComposition of Panchayats
Article 243GPowers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
Article 243KElections to the Panchayats
Article 249Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest
Article 262Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers or river valleys
Article 263Provisions with respect to an inter-state council
Article  265Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law
Article 275Grants from the Union to certain states
Article 280Finance Commission
Article  300Suits and proceedings
Article 300APersons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law (Right to property)
Article 311Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a state.
Article  312All-India Services
Article 315Public Service Commission for the Union and for the states
Article 320Functions of Public Service Commissions
Article 323-AAdministrative Tribunals
Article  324superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission
Article 330Reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the House of the People
Article 335Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts
Article 352Proclamation of Emergency (National Emergency)
Article 356Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states (President’s Rule)
Article 360Provisions as to Financial Emergency.
Article 365Effect of failure to comply with or to give effect to, directions given by the Union (President’s Rule)
Article 368Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor
Article 370Temporary provisions with respect to the state of Jammu and Kashmir

List of important Articles in Indian Constitution

Since you are familiar with the list of 80 articles, let’s move ahead and understand some of the important articles in Indian Constitution. 

Article 12-35: This article talks about fundamental rights. There are basically 6 fundamental rights that fall in this article including the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies. 

Article 36-51: This sort of article deals with the directive principles of state policy. It is important to know that the directive principles of state policy have been solely borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. Moreover, they also have been copied from the Spanish constitution. 

Article 51 A: Another important article extracted from the Indian constitution is Article 51A. It deals with the fundamental duties of a citizen. All these fundamental duties framed under this article are essential to adhere to every citizen. 

Article 343: This article talks about the official language of the Union. Furthermore, the union’s official language should be Hindi based in Devanagari script. The language can be used for various official purposes and other international forms. 

Article 356: This article in Indian Constitution deals with the imposition of the president’s rule. The President is the supreme authority in the Indian political landscape, who has powers to make many decisions. This article comprehensively tells about how the president can exercise powers. Overall we can say that this article powers the president to withdraw from the union the executive and legislative powers of any state.

Article 370: This is one of the important articles of Indian Constitution. The article thrusts upon the special powers with respect to Jammu and Kashmir. On 5th of August,2019, this article was scrapped paving the way for two new Union territories. Earlier the state of Jammu and Kashmir was more autonomous in terms of formulation of laws for its permanent residents. The state had its own flag and constitution and legislative assembly under this article. 

Article 395: This particular article repeals the independence act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935. It is important to mention that this article is more important in terms of landmark judgements as well as case laws.

Important Questions

Here is a list of questions around important articles in Indian Constitution for all the government job aspirants: 

  • Which articles protect interests of minorities in India? 
  • Bi-cameral legislature was introduced for the first time under which act? 
  • Which articles abolish untouchability? 
  • Constituent assembly adopted the constitution on which date? 
  • Which article promotes equality before law? 
  • Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases” is a part of which article in Indian constitution? 
  • Can you name the article which supports free legal aid for all? 
  • What is the relevance of Article 44 in the Indian constitution? 
  • Special Address by the president is a part of which article? 
  • Assent to bills comes under which article?

Also read: Scope of Political Science

Hope this blog has helped you with a thorough understanding of important articles in Indian Constitution. Want to be part of overseas education in top-notch educational universities? Let the professionals at Leverage Edu facilitate your academic journey. Book your free 30 minutes of e-counselling with the team and explore world-class educational possibilities.

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