India is regarded as amongst the largest democracies in the world. Our Indian constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, and was formulated with the context of almost 200 years of colonial rule, many freedom struggles, Indian national movement as well as considering communal violence and the country’s glorious history. Considered as the law of the land, it elucidates the powers and limitations of the three vital constituents of the State, i.e. Judiciary, Legislative and Executive. There are various important articles in Indian Constitution providing a common person with their fundamental rights, political code, procedures as well as their duties. Through this blog, we will be exploring the important articles in the Indian Constitution and their key features.
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What are Articles in IndIian Constitution ?
The Indian Constitution encompasses a total of 448 articles and each set of these articles correspond to the quintessential laws and guidelines pertaining to Legislatures, Constitutional Bodies, Fundamental Rights, Executive, Parts of Indian Constitution, Statutory Bodies, Schedules, to name a few. In simple terms, an article can be termed as a guideline and is in context to the section included in the different acts. Originally, there were a total of 395 articles in Indian Constitution which were expanded towards 448 with 104 amendments introduced.
An article in the Indian constitution is proper guidelines that define a rule. Moreover, it is more of a principle which mainly defines an act. The constitution of India whose chief architect was a prolific Indian politician called B.R Ambedkar is an amalgamation of important articles. All those articles are dealing with the ruling framework of government, fundamental rights of a person, election scenario etc. So much so, it is rightly considered as the longest written constitution of any country.
Most Important Articles in Indian Constitution
While preparing for Indian Polity for government exams and UPSC exams, it is essential to understand the different articles and amendments of the Indian Constitution. So, to help you ace your preparations, we have listed down the most important articles in the Indian Constitution and their features:
|Important Articles in Indian Constitution||Details|
|Article 1||Name and territory of the Union|
|Article 3||Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states|
|Article 13||Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights|
|Article 14||Equality before the law|
|Article 16||Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment|
|Article 17||Abolition of untouchability|
|Article 19||Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.|
|Article 21||Protection of life and personal liberty|
|Article 21A||Right to elementary education|
|Article 25||Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion|
|Article 30||Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions|
|Article 31 C||Saving of laws giving effect to certain Directive Principles|
|Article 32||Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights including writs|
|Article 38||State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people|
|Article 40||The organisation of village panchayats|
|Article 44||Uniform Civil Code for the citizens|
|Article 45||Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.|
|Article 46||Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections|
|Article 50||Separation of judiciary from the executive|
|Article 51||Promotion of international peace and security|
|Article 51 A||Fundamental Duties|
|Article 72||Powers of President to grant pardons, suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases|
|Article 74||Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President|
|Article 76||Attorney-General of India|
|Article 78||Duties of the Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.|
|Article 110||Definition of Money Bills|
|Article 112||Annual Financial Statement (Budget)|
|Article 123||Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament|
|Article 143||Power of President to consult Supreme Court|
|Article 148||Comptroller and Auditor-General of India|
|Article 149||Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India|
|Article 155||Appointment of the Governor|
|Article 161||Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases|
|Article 163||Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor|
|Article 165||Advocate-General of the state which British Laws are still used in India|
|Article 167||Duties of Chief Minister with regard to the furnishing of information to the Governor, etc.|
|Article 168||Constitution of Legislatures in the states|
|Article 169||Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in the states|
|Article 170||Composition of Legislative Assemblies in the states|
|Article 171||Composition of Legislative Councils in the states|
|Article 172||Duration of State Legislatures|
|Article 173||Qualification for membership of the State Legislature|
|Article 174||Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution|
|Article 178||Speakers and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly|
|Article 194||Powers, privileges, and Immunity of Advocate-General|
|Article 200||Assent to bills by the governor (including reservation for President)|
|Article 202||Annual financial statement of the State Legislature|
|Article 210||Language to be used in the State Legislature|
|Article 212||Courts are not to inquire into proceedings of the State Legislature|
|Article 213||Power of governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of the State Legislature|
|Article 214||High courts for the states|
|Article 217||Appointment and the conditions of the office of the judge of a High Court|
|Article 226||Power of high courts to issue certain writs|
|Article 239AA||Special provisions with respect to Delhi|
|Article 243B||Constitution of Panchayats|
|Article 243C||Composition of Panchayats|
|Article 243G||Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats|
|Article 243K||Elections to the Panchayats|
|Article 249||Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest|
|Article 262||Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers or river valleys|
|Article 263||Provisions with respect to an inter-state council|
|Article 265||Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law|
|Article 275||Grants from the Union to certain states|
|Article 280||Finance Commission|
|Article 300||Suits and proceedings|
|Article 300A||Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law (Right to property)|
|Article 311||Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a state.|
|Article 312||All-India Services|
|Article 315||Public Service Commission for the Union and for the states|
|Article 320||Functions of Public Service Commissions|
|Article 323-A||Administrative Tribunals|
|Article 324||superintendence, direction, and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission|
|Article 330||Reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the House of the People|
|Article 335||Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to Services and posts|
|Article 352||Proclamation of Emergency (National Emergency)|
|Article 356||Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states (President’s Rule)|
|Article 360||Provisions as to Financial Emergency.|
|Article 365||Effect of failure to comply with or to give effect to, directions given by the Union (President’s Rule)|
|Article 368||Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor|
|Article 370||Temporary provisions with respect to the state of Jammu and Kashmir|
Must Read: Functions of the Parliament
List of Important Articles in Indian Constitution
Since you are familiar with the list of 80 articles, let’s move ahead and understand some of the important articles in the Indian Constitution.
Article 12-35: This article talks about fundamental rights. There are basically 6 fundamental rights that fall in this article including the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Article 36-51: This sort of article deals with the directive principles of state policy. It is important to know that the directive principles of state policy have been solely borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. Moreover, they also have been copied from the Spanish constitution.
Article 51 A: Another important article extracted from the Indian constitution is Article 51A. It deals with the fundamental duties of a citizen. All these fundamental duties framed under this article are essential to adhere to every citizen.
Article 343: This article talks about the official language of the Union. Furthermore, the union’s official language should be Hindi based in Devanagari script. The language can be used for various official purposes and other international forms.
Article 356: This article in Indian Constitution deals with the imposition of the president’s rule. The President is the supreme authority in the Indian political landscape, who has powers to make many decisions. This article comprehensively tells about how the president can exercise powers. Overall we can say that this article powers the president to withdraw from the union the executive and legislative powers of any state.
Article 370: This is one of the important articles of Indian Constitution. The article thrusts upon the special powers with respect to Jammu and Kashmir. On 5th of August,2019, this article was scrapped paving the way for two new Union territories. Earlier the state of Jammu and Kashmir was more autonomous in terms of formulation of laws for its permanent residents. The state had its own flag and constitution and legislative assembly under this article.
Article 395: This particular article repeals the independence act 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935. It is important to mention that this article is more important in terms of landmark judgements as well as case laws.
Parts of the Constitution
Originally, the Indian constitution contained 395 articles that were divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules. Since its adoption, the number of articles has increased to 448 with various amendments and so have the parts of the constitution. The main parts of the Indian constitution are-
- The Union and its Territory
- Fundamental Rights
- Directive Principles of the State Policy
- Fundamental Duties
- The Union
- The State
- Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment) Act, 1956
- Union Territory
- Panchayati Raj
- The Municipalities
- Co-operative Societies
- Scheduled and Tribal Areas
- Relations between the Union and the States
- Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
- Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the territory
- Services under the Union and the States
- Special Provisions for certain classes
- Official Language
- Emergency Provisions
- Amendment of the Constitution
- Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions
Schedules in the Indian Constitution
- First Schedule: It contains the name of States and Union Territories
- Second Schedule: It contains provisions in relation to allowances, privileges, emoluments of government officials like the President, Governors, Chairman, Speakers, Judges etc.
- Third Schedule: It contains the forms of oath and affirmation
- Fourth Schedule: It contains the provisions in relation to the allocation of seats for States and Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha
- Fifth Schedule: It contains provisions in relation to the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes
- Sixth Schedule: It contains provisions in relation to the administration of tribal areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram
- Seventh Schedule: It talks about the three legislative lists- Union, State, and Concurrent
- Eighth Schedule: It deals with the 22 official languages recognized by the Indian Constitution:
- Ninth Schedule: It talks about state acts and regulations like land reforms and
- abolition of the zamindari system. It protects the laws from judicial intervention.
- Tenth Schedule: It talks about defection and disqualification of the members of Parliament and State Legislatures on similar grounds.
- Eleventh Schedule: It contains the provisions that specify the powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats. It has 29 matters.
- Twelfth Schedule: It deals with the provisions that specify the powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities.
Also read: Scope of Political Science
Books on Indian Constitution
- Indian Polity by Laxmikanth
- Introduction to the Constitution of India
- The Constitution of India by P. Bakshi
- The Indian constitution by Granville Austin
- The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution
- The Constitution of India: A Contextual Analysis by Arun K. Thiruvengadam
Here is a list of questions around important articles in the Indian Constitution for all the government job aspirants:
- Which articles protect interests of minorities in India?
- Bi-cameral legislature was introduced for the first time under which act?
- Which articles abolish untouchability?
- Constituent assembly adopted the constitution on which date?
- Which article promotes equality before law?
- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases” is a part of which article in Indian constitution?
- Can you name the article which supports free legal aid for all?
- What is the relevance of Article 44 in the Indian constitution?
- Special Address by the president is a part of which article?
- Assent to bills comes under which article?
Also Read: Public Administration vs Political Science
Hope this blog has helped you with a thorough understanding of important articles in the Indian Constitution. Want to be part of overseas education in top-notch educational universities? Let the professionals at Leverage Edu facilitate your academic journey. Book your free 30 minutes of e-counseling with the team and explore world-class educational possibilities.