What is Cryptography?

6 minute read
What is Cryptography

As the internet has become an essential tool of communication between people around the globe and is used extensively for different purposes ranging from business, and shopping to financial transactions, the security of online data has become an imperative concern. There are many online security tools and applications that are extensively utilised for maintaining privacy, information and data on the internet. One such tool is cryptography which protects information and communication and secures them for those intended to receive it. Want to know more about this extensively used cybersecurity tool? This blog elaborates upon what is cryptography, listing down the best courses and universities in this field along with the career opportunities it entails. 

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is primarily defined as the method or process of converting simple and ordinary text into indecipherable words. It is a method of effectively transferring data into a particular form. Data is secured in such a way that it is meant to be read by specific individuals for whom it is intended and only those people can process it further. Answering the question of “What is Cryptography” In simple terms, it fortifies and secures data from any kind of theft or maliciously intended alteration, but it can also be employed and used to authenticate a user. Besides, it performs multiple functions. It is aimed at securing data confidentiality, protecting user’s privacy, and authenticating or proving the identity of a person. It also ensures the integrity of the message for both the sender and the receiver. 

Cryptography Techniques

Modern cryptography has four techniques that you must know about:

  • Confidentiality: Information should not be understood by those whom it is not intended to 
  • Integrity: The information should not be altered in storage or in transit between sender and receiver without the alteration being detected
  • Non-repudiation: The creator cannot deny at a later stage of the information about their intention to create or transmit information
  • Authentication: The sender and receiver can confirm each other’s identity and the origin and destination of the information

Now that we have understood what is cryptography is, let’s move further towards exploring the best courses offered in this field. These courses aim to impart students with the knowledge of programming and coding languages, information security as well as applications in cybersecurity, amongst others. Take a look at the following sections which elucidates the top Cryptography courses at different levels. 

Undergraduate Courses

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Engineering Bachelor of Computer Science – Cyber SecurityBSc in Mathematics and Statistics – Applied Mathematics
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science (Honors) BSc (Hons) Mathematics and Computer ScienceBSc in Computing Science and Mathematics
Honours Bachelor of Science In Computer ScienceBSc in Computer Science – Systems ProgrammingBSc in CyberSecurity

Postgraduate Courses

MSc in Computer Science and EngineeringMaster of Science in Mathematics and Statistics (Biostatistics)MSc Advanced Computer Science
MSc in Computer Science and IT – Computer ScienceMSc Applied Cyber Security with Professional InternshipMSc in Applied Computing
Cyber Security Masters/MScMSc in Mathematics and Statistics (Bioinformatics)MSc in Operational Cyber Security
Master of Science in CybersecurityMSc Advanced Security and Digital ForensicsMSc in Global Communication Systems

Doctoral/Research Programmes

Doctor of Philosophy in Cybersecurity and CryptographyDoctor of Philosophy in MathematicsDoctor of Philosophy in Physics-Photonics/ Quantum Optics
Doctor of Philosophy in Algebra and Number TheoryDoctor of Philosophy in Computer Science – Information  SecurityDoctor of Philosophy in Computer Science – Theory
Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical and Computer EngineeringDoctor of Philosophy in Pure and Applied MathematicsDoctor of Philosophy in Algorithms and Theory
Doctor of Philosophy in Combinatorics and OptimizationDoctor of Philosophy in Computer Science – Algorithms and ComplexityDoctor of Philosophy in  Computer Science – Security, Privacy, and Cryptography

Subjects in Cryptography

For the aforementioned courses in Cryptography, the core emphasis is put on exploring the quintessential components of data and network security and the varied tools, techniques and applications used for the same. You will get to know about what is cryptography in details, its multifarious aspects and uses along with a wide range of related concepts like cryptocurrency, cryptoanalysis and much more. Here are some of the subjects which you might peruse under these courses:

Basics of CryptographyIdentification ProtocolsCollision Resistant Hashing
Authenticated EncryptionZero-Knowledge ProtocolsDigital Signature
Block CiphersRSA CryptosystemCryptanalysis
Arithmetic Modulo PrimesModern Stream CiphersBitcoin and Cryptocurrency

Top Universities Offering Courses in Cryptography

There are many universities offering a wide range of courses in cryptography around the world. Below we have enlisted some of the major universities offering cryptography, network security and Cyber Security Courses.

Also Read: MTech Computer Science

Top Required Skills

Here are the top required skills that you must have to become a cryptographer:

  • Advanced algebra
  • Programming languages such as C, C++, Python, and Java
  • Computer networking
  • Algorithms
  • Cybersecurity
  • Symmetric cryptography
  • Asymmetric cryptography

Career Prospects 

Those who have a strong knowledge of technical management, data security and analysis and network security can avail lucrative job profiles in the emerging arena of cryptography. Some of the sought-after career prospects you can avail in Cryptography are:

  • Research Scientist
  • Verification Research Scientist
  • Software Engineer-Cryptography & Systems
  • Solidity Developer
  • Research Engineer
  • Data Protection – Cryptography Engineer
  • Information Technology Manager 
  • Network and Computer Systems Administrator

Job Profile of Cryptographer

The job profile of the cryptographer depends upon the industry and organization for which you want to be a cryptographer. Here are the responsibilities that you must entail:

  • Develop new methods to encrypt data
  • Find new relationships between existing mathematical principles to advanced mathematical science
  • Create reports based on data
  • Decipher encrypted message
  • Apply methods of numerical analysis to data
  • Develop statistical or mathematical models to analyze data
  • Use mathematical theories to solve advanced problems


Since a cryptographer’s profile requires a graduate degree, choosing a career as a cryptographer can be costly. 

  • The average salary of a cryptographer is $149,040 annually
  • The entry-level salary is around  $109,500


What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science and art of secure communication in the presence of adversaries. It involves techniques and methods to convert information into a secret code, making it difficult for unauthorized parties to access or understand the original data. Cryptography ensures confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation of information, making it a vital component in digital security and privacy.

How does Cryptography work?

Cryptography employs mathematical algorithms to transform plaintext (normal text) into ciphertext (encoded text) using a cryptographic key. This process, known as encryption, scrambles the data so that it becomes unreadable without the correct key. The recipient then uses a corresponding decryption key to convert the ciphertext back to plaintext. Effective cryptographic systems rely on the complexity of these algorithms and the secrecy of keys to maintain data security.

What are the types of Cryptography?

Cryptography can be categorized into several types, including symmetric-key cryptography and asymmetric-key cryptography. In symmetric-key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. Asymmetric-key cryptography, on the other hand, uses a pair of keys: one for encryption and another for decryption. Other cryptographic techniques include hash functions, digital signatures, and cryptographic protocols. These various methods collectively contribute to safeguarding sensitive information across digital platforms.

Thus, we hope that this blog helped you understand what is cryptography, the top courses in this field as well as job opportunities it has on offer! Cryptography is a wide and complex subject and it is becoming increasingly indispensable in today’s times. Want to pursue a course in Cyber Security or its related fields? Our Leverage Edu experts are here to assist you in picking the best course and university that can equip you with the requisite skills, knowledge and exposure to build a rewarding career in this field! Sign up for an e-meeting with us today!

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