“No man is above the law and no man is below it: nor do we ask any man’s permission when we ask him to obey it.” – Theodore Roosevelt. Every nation has a specified set of laws to regulate its smooth functioning as well as address any social or communal conflicts at times. Further, a career in Law imparts aspirants with immense responsibility since they are concerned with becoming a part of the apparatus of delivering justice. This is why the study of law is a rigorous and meticulous endeavour that one needs to undertake to attain the necessary certifications. After completing an LLB course, if you find yourself getting inclined to peruse this field, LLM is the ideal one to opt for. Through this blog, we aim to bring you a detailed guide on what a master’s degree in Law, i.e. LLM entails, the eligibility conditions you need to fulfil as well as the top universities you must consider.
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Also referred to as Masters of Law, LLM or Latin Legum Magister is a globally recognised degree with a total duration of 2 years, though some universities also offer it as a one-year course. Further, along with being an interdisciplinary degree, candidates are also provided with a plethora of specializations to choose from and concentrate on a specific one. Though the following paragraphs list down the major specialisations provided in an LLM degree, some of them include Taxation Law, Criminal Law, Human Rights, Environmental Law, International Trade, Jurisprudence, and Cyber Law amongst others. Also, a degree like LLM is generally studied by those wanting to expand towards the realm of international law and understand its intricacies.
It is critical to pursue an LLM course after graduating from a top legal school. An LLM programme will help you get started in your legal profession. A few of the most compelling reasons to pursue LLM programmes are listed below.
- Prepares for a Profession in International Law: LLM degrees with a specialisation in International Law will assist students in making a name for themselves in in the international arena and, eventually, a career in the international legal area, ensuring a bright future.
- Help you focus on your interests: Unlike undergraduate legal studies, which focus on broad law, the LLM permits you to specialise in a specific topic. This gradually allows you to focus on the issue and give it greater attention, allowing you to become an expert at it.
- Various Specializations: The diversity of specialisations available in LLM courses can assist students in deciding on a professional path in areas such as international law, corporate law, labour law, and human rights, among others.
- Pursue a Job in Legal Writing & Research: Depending on your LLM specialisation, pursuing LLD following your LLM can lead to a career in legal research and writing.
- Better Job Opportunities: A master’s degree in law will earn you a higher wage and provide you with more prospects than a bachelor’s degree in law.
To help individuals anchor their focus on a specific field during the degree, LLM comprises of varied specialisations that one can choose from. Here is a list of these concentrations that you must know about:
- Constitutional Law
- Criminal Law
- Insurance Law
- Environmental Law
- International Trade and Business Law
- Intellectual Property Law
- Taxation Law
- Human Rights
- Corporate Law and Governance
Though every law school might specify its own prerequisites for a master’s degree in Law, there are certain eligibility conditions that one needs to fulfil in order to apply for an LLM degree. Below we have listed the central requirements that you must know about before opting for this degree:
- Candidates are essentially required to have completed their LLB degree. Further, some institutions also ask for your law school transcripts as part of the application.
- English Proficiency test scores such as IELTS, TOEFL and PTE.
- Various institutions may need GRE scores as well.
- SOPs and LORs
- Some universities also prefer aspirants with prior work or research experience in Law.
LLM Admission 2022
- Universities accept a candidate’s score on any national or university-level admission exam for law schools that he or she has taken.
- On May 8, 2022, an LLM entrance exam similar to CLAT PG was held.
- CLAT, IPU-CET, LSAT, DU LLM, AP LAWCET, and other top LLM entry examinations include:
- For general candidates, the application price for LLM admission ranges from 750 to 2,000. The application fee for reserved classes would be INR 350.
LLM Entrance Exams
Students who desire to take LLM courses must pass the admission exam required for the programme. Admission to LLM programmes is based on the results of the entrance exam and the interview stage, both of which are performed by the various universities.
There are various entrance exams to choose from, including CLAT PG, AILET, IPU CET, BHU UET, and others.
Entrance Exam Dates
|Entrance Exams||Registration Dates||Exam Dates|
|CLAT||January 01 – March 31, 2022||May 08, 2022|
|AILET||January 03 – May 25, 2022||June 26, 2022|
|IPU CET||March 4, 2022 – May 31, 2022||June 23 – June 25, 2022|
|LSAT||October 18, 2021 – January 3, 2022 (January session)October 18, 2021 – April 25, 2022 (May session)||January 15, 2022 (January session)May 9, 2022 (May session)|
|TS PGLCET||April 6, 2022 – June 16, 2022||July 22, 2022|
|AP PGLCET||May 13, 2022 – June 13, 2022||July 13, 2022|
|Law and Social Transformation in India||Judicial Process||Legal Research and Methodology|
|Alternative Dispute Resolution||Constitutionalism||Human Rights and Humanitarian Law|
|International Trade Law||Intellectual Property Rights||Corporate Law|
|LLM International Law||Comparative Public Law||International Law and International Relations: Development and Trends|
|International Organizations||Law and Justice in Internationalized World|
|Law of Sea, Air and Space||International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law|
|International Courts and Tribunals||International Dispute Resolution Bodies|
|LLM Corporate Law||Financial Models and Derivatives in a Legal Context||Banking and Finance Law|
|Corporate Social Responsibilities and the Law||European Law of Capital Markets|
|European Procurement Law||Principles of International Tax Law|
|LLM Taxation Law||General Principles of Taxation||Direct Tax Laws|
|Tax Litigation||Indirect Tax laws|
|International Taxation||Corporate Tax|
|LLM Human Rights||Concept of Human Rights & Human Duties||Human Rights & Criminal Justice|
|Constitutional Governance of Human Rights in India||International Humanitarian Law|
|Refugee Law||People’s Rights to Self-determination|
|LLM Constitutional Law||Law and Social Transformation in India||Constitutionalism: Pluralism & Federalism|
|Indian Constitutional Law- The New Challenges||Judicial Process|
|Mass Media Law||Administrative Process and Judicial Control|
|LLM Environmental Law||International Law and Environmental Protection||Nature and Scope of Environmental Law|
|Environmental Protection and General Civil and Criminal Laws||Protection of Environment under the Indian Constitution|
|Protection of Water, Air and Environment in India||Emerging Issues in Environmental Law|
Top Universities Offering LLM
There are a plethora of globally recognised universities across the globe that offer master’s degrees in Law. Take a look at the table below which elucidates the top academic institutions and law schools as well as their prospective LLM courses.
|New York University School of
|Traditional LL.M.||1 year|
|Georgetown University Law Centre||General Studies LLM||1 year|
|Columbia Law School||Master of Laws (LL.M.)||1 year|
|University of Oxford||MSc in Law and Finance||1 year|
|Queen Mary University of London||LL.M. (Master of Laws)||1 year|
|University of California||LL.M. Traditional Track||1 year|
|University of Amsterdam||European Private Law (LL.M.)||1 year|
|Duke University||Master of Laws (LL.M.)||1 year|
|University of Southern California||Master of Laws (LL.M.)||1 year|
|University of Oslo||Master of Laws (LL.M.) in
Public International Law
|Utrecht University||LL.M. in European Law||1 year|
|University of Ottawa||General LL.M.||1 year|
|University of Bristol||LL.M. Law – General Legal Studies||1 year|
|University of Groningen||Master of Laws in Energy and Climate
LLM International Law
The study of the laws of many countries and organisations is the focus of an LLM in International Law. LLM in International Law is a popular speciality in India since it provides students with options to work in other countries.
The following are some of the topics covered in the LLM International Law programme:
International Law and International Relations: Developments and Trends
International Dispute Resolution Bodies etc.
LLM Recommended Books
|Name of the Books||Authors|
|Responsibility of International Organizations||Professor Bimal N. Patel|
|Administrative Law||C K Thakker|
|Comparative Constitutional Law||Mahendra P. Singh|
|Law and Social Transformation||P. Ishwara Bhat|
|Due Process of Law||Abhinav Chandrachud|
Career Prospects & Scope After LLM
Completing an LLM degree, there is an array of career opportunities that one can opt for. It is quite a common conception that the legal arena has a limited set of professions. Today, the field of law has expanded its horizons into multifold branches leading to varied prospects. Further, you can also select a specialisation like Cyber Law or Energy and Climate Law during your master’s degree to establish your career in the same. Take a look at the below-mentioned list of career prospects that you can choose from after LLM:
- Legal Consultant
- Legal Document Reviewer
- Public Prosecutor
- Law Reporter
Courses After LLM
A PhD in Law or LLD, commonly known as Doctor of Law, can be pursued after successfully completing an LLM degree. Several universities in India, including Nalsar Hyderabad, IIT Kharagpur, and NLU Jodhpur, offer LLD admissions.
The following are the requirements for pursuing an LLD:
- Students must have completed LLM with a minimum of 55 percent overall or an equivalent CGPA.
- Students should be required to pass several university entrance tests.
- Before enrolling students in LLD courses, several universities require prior job experience.
LLM Salary in India
An LLM graduate’s compensation is determined by the type of employment he or she holds. Typically, an LLM graduate’s pay ranges between INR 4 to 12 LPA.
The standard abbreviation for a Master of Laws degree is ‘LLM.’ The acronym comes from the Latin term for the qualification, ‘Legum Magister,’ with ‘legum’ being the plural of ‘lex,’ which means law. Latin pluralizes the Master of Laws to ‘LLM’, as it does the ‘LLB’.
The level of the course is the primary distinction between LLB (Bachelors of Law) and LLM (Masters of Law). The LLB is a bachelor’s degree programme, whereas the LLM is a post-graduate programme for students who have previously finished their bachelor’s degree.
In the realm of legal studies, an LLM PhD is a higher degree of qualification. Successful LLM PhD graduates can go on to work as legal professors at law schools and universities.
Yes, LLM is a 2 years course.
Thus, we hope that this blog has helped you understand the varied essentials of LLM. If you are planning to study a master’s degree in Law abroad and don’t know where to begin, take the help of Leverage Edu’s AI-based tool that narrows down a suitable course and university combinations as per your skills and aspirations and assists you in making an informed decision to sail further in your professional journey.