CBSE Class 10 Syllabus

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus

The Central Board of Secondary Education prescribes a combination of core and electives at the class 10 level to develop a sound foundation for higher studies. Focusing on essential skills of mathematical ability, scientific awareness, socio-political understanding and language grasp, the CBSE Class 10 syllabus focuses on each aspect of knowledge growth. As entering grade 11 students are required to select one of the science, commerce or arts stream, development of areas and spaces of interests at this stage starts occurring. Here we list down the key details of the major four subjects in the CBSE Class 10 syllabus which are also referred to as ‘Best 4’ and are namely, English Language and Literature, Mathematics, Science and Social Science.

Also Read: Geography Class 10

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: English Language & Literature

Crucial divisions and marking schemes in the subject section of English Language and Literature are as follows:

Section Sub-Heads Marks
A Reading Skills 20
B Writing Skills with Grammar 30
C Literature Textbook and Supplementary Reading Text 30
Total 80
Internal Assessment 20
Final Total 100

English Language & Literature CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Topic-wise Breakdown

Given below are specific question-related details students must know.

Sections Question Pattern Total
Section A:
8 Objective type questions each 1 mark
[incl. MCQ] based on a Factual Passage roughly
of 300-3000words
4 Short Answer Type Questions based on a
Discursive Passage of roughly 350-400 words


Section B:
Writing Skills
Article Writing/Letter to Editor/Formal Letter
Complaint/ Placing Order/Inquiry in about 100-150
Short story based on a hint/cue/outline
Grammar Portions: Tenses, Modals
Use of passive voice
Subject-verb concord
Reporting: Commands and requests; Statements;
Questions Clauses: Noun clauses; Adverb clauses;
Relative clauses
Question Types: Gap-filling, Editing,
Omission, Sentence Reordering,
Sentence Transformation



Section C:
Textbook and
One out of two extracts from poetry/prose/drama

3 Short Answer Type Questions [Ans=30 to 40
words] from First Flights and 2 Short Answer
Type Questions from Footprints without Feet

One out of two Long Answer Type Questions
from First Flight in roughly around 100-150
One out of two Long Answer Type Questions from
Footprints without Feet in roughly around
100-150 words

4 MCQ of
1 mark each




CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Mathematics

Covering seven units, the CBSE Class 10 syllabus of Mathematics emphasises conceptual understanding. 

Unit Heads Marks
I Number System 06
II Algebra  20
III Coordinate Geometry 06
IV Geometry 15
V Trigonometry 12
VI Mensuration 10
VII Statistics & Probability 11
Total 80
Internal Assessment 20
Final Total 100

Mathematics CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Topic-wise Breakdown

In the major heads of mathematics, topics covered are:

Unit Heads Topics
1 Number System Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Euclid’s Division Lemma, Proofs of Irrationality, Decimal representation of rational numbers
II Algebra  Polynomials, Pair Of Linear Equations In Two Variables and Solutions, Quadratic Equations-Standard Form and Solutions, Arithmetic Progression
III Coordinate Geometry Graphs of Linear Equations, Area of Triangle, Distance Formula, Section Formula [Internal Division]
IV Geometry Triangles [Properties, Types, Theorems etc], Circles [Properties, Types, Theorems], Constructions
V Trigonometry Introduction to Trigonometry [Trigonometric Ratios & Relationships], Trigonometric Identities, Heights & Distances: Angle of Elevation, Angle of Depression
VI Mensuration Areas & Circumferences of Circles sectors & segments, Areas of Planes, Surface Areas & Volumes of 3D Figures like Cubes, Spheres, Frustum, etc
VIII Statistics & Probability Measures of Central Tendency-Mean, Median & Mode, Cumulative Frequency Graph, Probability-Definition & Problems

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Science

The salient features of major 5 units in Science along with the total marks they carry have been given a rundown below.

Chapters Marks
Chemical Substances-Nature and Behaviour 25
Natural Phenomena 12
Natural Resources 07
Effects of Current 13
World of Living 23
Total 80
Internal Assessment 20
Grand Aggregate 100

Science CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Chapter-wise Analysis

As the CBSE Class 10 Syllabus of Science is quite colossal and extensive, it becomes incredibly pivotal to devote an ample amount of time in both theoretical and practical aspects of it:

Unit Heads Topics
1 Chemical Substances-Nature and Behaviour Chemical equation & its types, combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction
Acids, bases & salts, Properties, examples & uses, Concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), Importance of pH in daily life; Preparation & uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda & Plaster of Paris
Properties of metals & non-metals; Reactivity series, Formation & properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion & its prevention
Covalent bonding in carbon compounds, Homologous series, Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes). Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction)
Need for classification, early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, Gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
World of Living Life & Life processes, Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport &
excretion in plants and animals.
Control & coordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants;
Plant hormones; Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action;
Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual)
reproductive health-need and methods of family planning, Safe sex vs
HIV/AIDS, Childbearing and women’s health
Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution-Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination; Basic concepts of evolution.
Natural Phenomena Properties of light and image formation, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror
formula (Derivation not required), magnification
Refraction [Laws & Properties], Lens formula (Derivation not required);
Magnification, Power of lens, Lens in human eye, Vision Defects &
Corrections, Applications of Spherical mirrors and lenses, Prism,
dispersion & scattering of light, 
Effects of Current Electric current, Ohm’s law, Resistance, Resistivity, Series & parallel
combination of resistors; Heating  effect of electric current, Electric power,
Interrelation between P, V, I & R; Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current-carrying conductor, field due to current
carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current-carrying conductor, 
Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction.
Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule
Electric Generator, Direct current [DC] & Alternating current [AC], 
Frequency of AC; Advantage of AC over DC, Domestic electric circuits
Natural Resources Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and
non-conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas;
wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy; Renewable versus
non-renewable sources of Energy, 
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable substances; 
Management of natural resources: Conservation and judicious use of
natural resources. Forest and wildlife; Coal and Petroleum conservation.
People’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams:
advantages and limitations; alternatives. Water harvesting, Sustainability of Natural resources

Read our extensive blog on Class 10 Science Syllabus.

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus: Social Science

Similar to Science, Social Science touches fields of History, Political Science, Economics, Geography and Consumer Rights. Each unit mentioned below carries 20 marks each with the rest 20 in Internal Assessment.

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Unit Sub-Heads Marks
I India and the Contemporary World –I 20
II Contemporary India –II 20
III Democratic Politics -II 20
IV Understanding Economic Development 20
Total 80
Internal Assessment 20
Final Total 100

CBSE Class 10 Syllabus Social Science: Topic-wise Breakdown

Specific topics mentioned under each head are listed in the following table.

Unit Heads Topics
I India and the
World –I
Rise of Nationalism in Europe: French Revolution
& Idea of Nation; Making of Nationalism in Europe;
Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848;
Germany and Italy Visualizing the Nation;
Nationalism & Imperialism
Nationalism in India: 1st World War, Khilafat
& Non-Cooperation Movements; Civil Disobedience;
Sense of Collective Belonging
Making of Global World: Pre-modern world;
19th Century (1815-1914);
Inter-war Economy;
Rebuilding World Economy: Post-War Era
Age of Industrialization:
Before the Industrial Revolution;
Hand Labour & Steam Power;
Industrialization in Colonies; Factories;
Peculiarities of Industrial Growth; Market for Goods
Print Culture & Modern World: First Printed Books;
Print Comes to Europe; Print Revolution & its Impact;
Reading Mania; 19th Century; India & World of Print;
Religious Reform & Public Debates; New Forms of
Publication Print & Censorship
II Contemporary
India –II
Resources & Development: Types & Development of Resources;
Resource Planning in India; Land Resources, Utilization,
Use Pattern in India, Degradation & Conservation Measures;
Soil as Resource; Soil Classification; Soil Erosion & Conservation
Forest & Wildlife: Biodiversity or Biological Diversity;
Flora & Fauna in India; Asiatic Cheetah; Himalayan Yew;
Conservation of Forest & wildlife in India; Project Tiger;
Types & distribution of forests and wildlife resources;
Community & Conservation
Water Resources: Water Scarcity, Conservation & Management;
Multi-Purpose River Projects & Integrated Water Resources
Management; Rainwater Harvesting 
Agriculture: Farming; Crops; Cropping Pattern &
Reforms; Impact of Globalization
Minerals & Energy Resources: Minerals- Occurrence Types;
Conservation of Minerals; Conventional & Non-Conventional
Conservation of Energy Resources
Manufacturing Industries: Importance of manufacturing and
Contribution to National Economy; Industrial Location;
Classification of Industries; Spatial distribution; Industrial pollution,
Environmental Degradation and Control
Life Lines of National Economy: Transport–Roadways,
Railways, Pipelines, Waterways, Airways; Communication;
International Trade; Tourism as Trade

Note: Chapters on ‘Forest & Wildlife’ and ‘Water Resources’
form part of only Periodic Tests and
not of Board Examination Syllabus. 

III Democratic
Politics -II
Power Sharing: Concept and Cases of Belgium
& Sri Lanka; Forms of Federalism: Concept;
India as Federal Country;
Practice of Federalism; Decentralization
Democracy & Diversity: Case of Mexico; Differences,
similarities & divisions; Politics of social divisions
Gender, Religion and Caste: Concepts and Intersections
Popular Struggles & Movements: Introduction and
Cases of Nepal & Bolivia; Mobilization & Organization;
Pressure Groups & Movements
Political Parties: Need and Optimal Number of Political Parties;
National & State Political Parties; Challenges to Political Parties;
Reforms Outcomes of Democracy: Assessment of
Democracy’s outcomes; Accountable, responsive and
legitimate government; Economic growth & Development;
Inequality & Poverty Reduction; Accommodation of
Social Diversity; Dignity & Freedom of Citizens
Challenges to Democracy: Political Reforms;
Redefining Democracy

Note: Chapters on ‘Democracy & Diversity’,
‘Popular Struggles & Movements’ and ‘Challenges to
Democracy’ form part of the syllabus of only Periodic Tests
and not of Board Examination Syllabus. 

IV Understanding
Development: Promises of Development, Income and
Other goals; National Development; Comparison
with different countries; Income and Other criteria;
Public Facilities; Sustainability of development
Sectors of Indian Economy: Sectors of Economic
Activities and Comparison; Primary, Secondary
and Tertiary Sectors in India; Organized & Unorganized;
Public & Private Money and Credit: Money as
a medium of exchange; Modern Money Forms;
Loan Activities of Banks; Two Credit situations;
Terms of credit; Formal sector credit in India; Self Help Groups
Globalization and Indian Economy: Production
across countries; Interlinking production across countries;
Foreign Trade & Integration of markets;
Globalization & Factors; World Trade Organisation;
Impact of Globalization on India;
Struggle for Fair Globalisation; Consumer Rights

Note: Chapter 5 ‘Consumer Rights’ is assigned for Project Work.

You can also take advantage of the following resources relating to Class 11 as well as Class 12.

Covering the CBSE Class 10 syllabus efficiently requires continuous efforts as well as working through a carefully curated preparation plan. Clearing 10th class, one is required to choose a stream in the next standard which will ultimately decide their career quest. If you are unsure about which stream to opt for, take assistance of our team of experts at Leverage Edu and we will guide you in sorting out your abilities and skills to find the right field in which you can pave the path to your dream career.

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