# Physics Syllabus for Class 12

We all have gone through the struggle of arduously preparing for the class 12th board examinations. Out of all the Science stream subjects, most of us have struggled in getting a hold on concepts of Physics. There is no doubt that when we talk about MPC subjects or BiPC subjects, Physics is considered the trickiest amongst all. Thus, it is essential to understand the physics syllabus in detail to start a career in Science after 12th. The physics syllabus, as designed by the Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE) for class 12th involves an intensive study in the domain of science and is designed to provide advanced knowledge by brushing up the concepts taught in class 10th and 11th. A detailed analysis of the below-mentioned units will provide a stable foundation of the important principles. The syllabus is bifurcated into 10 units and 15 chapters. The table mentioned below elucidates the chapter-wise distribution of the units of the physics syllabus for class 12:

## Unit-1 Electrostatics

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

This chapter of the physics syllabus for class 12 aims to impart knowledge on topics such as Coulumb’s law-force; forces between multiple charges; Electric Charges; Continuous Charge Distribution; Electric Fields; Electric Fields Lines; Torque on a dipole; Electric Flux, etc.

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Through a study of this chapter, students will get to learn about potential differences; electric potential; equipotential surface; dipole and system of charges; dielectrics and polarisation; capacitors and capacitance; energy stored in capacitance; free charges and bound charges, etc.

## Unit-2 Current Electricity

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

This chapter of the physics syllabus for class 12 offers an intricate study in topics like the flow of electric current; drift velocity; Ohm’s Law; carbon resistor; series and parallel combination of resistors; internal resistance; Wheatstone bridge; meter bridge; measurement of internal resistance of a cell; electrical resistivity and conductivity, etc.

## Unit-3 Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

In the physics syllabus for class 12, this chapter elucidates about straight and toroidal solenoids; moving coil galvanometer; force on as moving charge; magnetic and electric field; cyclotron; force between two parallel currents; ammeter and voltmeter; galvanometer and its current sensitivity; amperes law and its application to an infinitely long straight wire.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

Torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field;  bar magnet as equivalent solenoid; magnetic field lines; para, di, ferromagnetic substance; permanent magnets; earth’s magnetic fields and magnetic elements; magnetic dipole movement of a revolving electron; electromagnets are some of the topics covered in this chapter of physics syllabus for class 12.

## Unit 4- Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

Faraday’s Laws; Eddy currents; Lenz’s Law; induced EMF and Current; Electromagnetic Induction; Self and Mutual induction are the major topics covered in the module of the physics syllabus for class 12.

Chapter 7: Alternating Current

Peak and RMS value of alternating voltage /current; LC oscillations; alternating currents; resonance; wattless current; LCR series circuit; reactance and impedance; power in AC Circuits; AC generator and transformer; resonance, etc.

## Unit 5- Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

As a part of the physics syllabus for class 12, you will learn about the nature of transverse waves; electromagnetic spectrum (infrared waves, Radio waves, visible, X-rays, gamma rays, ultra-violet, microwaves); the basic idea of displacement current; electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, etc.

## Unit 6- Optics

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

An important module of the physics syllabus for class 12, the chapter covers mirror formula; refraction at the spherical surface; thin lens formula; combination fo thin lenses in contact combination; total internal reflection and its application; reflection at the spherical surface; refraction and dispersion of light through a prism, etc.

Chapter 10: Wave Optics

Diffraction due to a single slit; resolving powers of microscopes and astronomical telescope; proof of laws of reflection and using Huygen’s principle; polarisation, use of plane polarised lights and polaroids; interference and Young’s double; plane-polarized light, etc.

## Unit 7- Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter 11: Dual  Nature of Radiation and Matter

In this unit of physics syllabus for class 12, students will learn about photoelectric Effect; matter waves- wave nature of particle; Davisson and Germer experiment; Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s Photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc.

## Unit 8- Atoms and Nuclei

Chapter 12:Atoms

Bohr Model; energy levels; Alpha Particle Scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; hydrogen spectrum are the topics that form an integral part of this chapter of the physics syllabus for class 12.

Chapter 13: Nuclei

Beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law; isotopes; isobars; mass defect; nuclear fission and fusion; Mass-energy relation; composition and size of the nucleus; binding energy per nucleon, etc.

## Unit 9- Electronic Devices

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits

Unit 9 of physics syllabus for class 12 aims to provide knowledge on semiconductors and insulators; semiconductor diode; I-V characteristics forward and reverse bias; LED; photodiode; sollar cells and Zener diode as voltage regulator; energy bands in conductors, etc.

## Unit 10- Communication Systems

Chapter 15: Communication Systems

Through this module of the physics syllabus for class 12, students will learn about the bandwidth of signals; sky and space wave propagation; satellite communication; the need for modulation; propagation fo Electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; elements of the communication system, etc.

Note: The topics mentioned in the aforementioned units are in general. To get a detailed overview, kindly visit the official CBSE website.

## Reference Books

Comprehending the Physics syllabus for class 12 can be a tough thing to do especially when you are studying on your own. To have a better understanding of the topics one can depend on reference books. Given below are some of the best books that can be considered to get a great score in class 12 physics:

Thus, the physics syllabus for class 12 is diverse and to score well, it is important to have a well-devised strategy. Board examinations are a step towards starting a career in the field of your choice. Despite the resources available, deciding what to do next hits most of us hard. In such a situation, where you cannot find which career pathway to trod on, a career counsellor comes to rescue! Take the assistance of Leverage Edu’s exclusive psychometric test which by gauging through your personality will identify the most suitable career choice thus helping you pave your way to success!