Poetic Devices

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Poetic Devices

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveller, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth
The aforementioned couplet has been extracted from the poem “Road Not Taken”, written by Robert Frost. These lines are perfectly framed around poetic devices that make it exemplary and extraordinary in nature. Lucidity in writing plays a decisive role in crafting a masterpiece. A person with a poetic bent of mind has to make the writeup soothing and rhythmic and in order to do so, poetic devices are very important. Certainly, every form of artwork needs meticulous attention and craftsmanship from an artist. Likewise, framing a poem demands the same requirements by adding more flavour and texture to the poem. In this blog, we will help you understand the basics of poetic devices through a list of 10 poetic devices with examples. 

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What are Poetic Devices?

Poetic devices can be simply referred to as a form of literary devices which are used in poetry. These poetic devices are used as different elements in a poem such as verbal, visual, structural, rhythmic, metrical, grammatical elements and so on. These poetic devices are the tool used by poets to augment the meaning of a poem, make it rhythmic and sonically pleasing or to intensify the core emotion, mood or feeling represented in the poem.

The 20 Poetic Devices You Must Know!

Here are the most commonly used and interesting poetic devices in English literature you must know about:

  1. Alliteration
  2. Allusion
  3. Assonance
  4. Consonance
  5. Irony
  6. Metaphor
  7. Similes
  8. Ode
  9. Repetition
  10. Rhyme
  11. Onomatopoeia
  12. Stanzas
  13. Word Play
  14. Calligram
  15. Imagery
  16. Personification
  17. Refrain
  18. Kenning
  19. Couplets
  20. Rhythm

50+ Poetic Devices with Examples

There are different types of Poetic Devices which can be incorporate in a poem to make it more meaningful and filled with imagery. The major forms of poetic devices are based on:

  • To add sounds of words
  • To enhance the meaning of words
  • To arrange the words in a certain order or sequence
  • To create imagery through words

Now, let’s take a look at the complete list of poetic devices of each of these purposes:

English Poetic Devices Used to Create Rhythm/Sound

  • Onomatopeia: Splash, Murmur, Bang, Fwoosh, Buzz
  • Alliteration: “She sells seashells by the sea-shore.”
  • Rhyme: Night-Bright, Skin-Grin, Frog-Log
  • Assonance: “The crumbling thunder of seas” (Robert Louis Stevenson); “Strips of tinfoil winking like people” (Sylvia Plath)
  • Consonance: Toss the glass, boss; Dawn goes down
  • Euphony: “So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.” (Shakespeare)
  • Repetition: Robert Frost’s Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
    “The woods are lovely dark and deep,
    But I have promises to keep,
    And miles to go before I sleep,
    And miles to go before I sleep.”
  • Cacophony: “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! The frumious Bandersnatch!” (Lewis Carroll)
  • Rhythm: “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” (Shakespeare)

English Poetic Devices Used to Change the Meaning of Words

  • Irony: Stevie Smith’s Not Waving But Drowning
    “Nobody heard him, the dead man,
    But still he lay moaning:
    I was much further out than you thought
    And not waving but drowning.”
  • Allegory: The Tortoise and the Hare – Aesop’s Fables
  • Euphemism:
    “If I pass during some nocturnal blackness, mothy and warm,
    When the hedgehog travels furtively over the lawn,
    One may say, “He strove that such innocent creatures should come to no harm,
    But he could do little for them; and now he is gone.
    – Thomas Hardy
  • Ambiguity:
    “O Rose thou art sick.
    The invisible worm,
    That flies in the night
    In the howling storm: Has found out thy bed
    Of crimson joy;
    And his dark secret love
    Does thy life destroy”
    (William Blake’s The Rose)
  • Personification:
    She sweeps with many-colored brooms,
    And leaves the shreds behind;
    Oh, housewife in the evening west,
    Come back, and dust the pond! (Emily Dickinson)
  • Analogy:
    “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose
    By any other word would smell as sweet.
    So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called”
    (William Shakespeare)
  • Denotation:
    When all at once I saw a crowd,
    A host, of golden daffodils;
    Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
    Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.” (William Wordsworth)
  • Cliche: A heart full of sorrow
  • Allusion:
    Then leaf subsides to leaf.
    So Eden sank to grief,
    So dawn goes down to day.
    Nothing gold can stay.
    (Robert Frost)
  • Connotation: “She’s all states, and all princes, I” (John Donne)
  • Contrast:
    “My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
    Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
    If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
    If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.”
    (William Shakespeare)
  • Apostrophe
    “Busy old fool, unruly Sun,
    Why dost thou thus,
    Through windows, and through curtains, call on
    us?”
    (John Donne)
  • Metaphor: “An elephant, a ponderous house
    A melon strolling on two tendrils.” (Sylvia Plath)
  • Pun: “Apocalypse soon
    Coming our way
    Ground zero at noon
    Halve a nice day.”
    (Edmund Conti)
  • Hyperbole: “And I will love thee still, my dear,
    Till a’ the seas gang dry.
    Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear,
    And the rocks melt wi’ the sun:”
    (Robert Burns)
  • Simile: “Is love a tender thing? It is too rough, too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like thorn.” (Shakespeare)
  • Symbolism:
    I am of one element,
    Levity my matter,
    Like enough a withered leaf
    For the winds to scatter.
    (The Archepoet)
  • Metonymy:
    “O, for a draught of vintage!” (John Keats) [Here Vintage is a metonymy for Wine]
  • Oxymoron:
    “Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health,
    Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
    This love feel I, that feel no love in this.”
    (Shakespeare)
  • Paradox: “To be natural is such a very difficult pose to keep up.” (Oscar Wilde)
  • Synecdoche:
    “‘Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard,
    A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark
    Is by a forged process of my death
    Rankly abused: but know, thou noble youth,
    The serpent that did sting thy father’s life
    Now wears his crown.”
    (Shakespeare)

English Poetic Devices for Arranging the Words

  • Rhyme Scheme
  • Stanza
  • Verse Line
  • Blank Verse & Free Verse
  • Snippet
  • Ballet
  • Epitaph
  • Haiku
  • Limerick
  • Ode
  • Rondeau
  • Sestina
  • Triolet
  • Villanelle

English Poetic Devices for Adding Imagery

  • Synthesia
  • Imagery
  • Tone or Mood

Poetic Devices in English Literature Explained with Examples!

To help you understand the definition and meaning of English poetic devices, we have elaborated all the major poetic devices with examples in English literature:

Alliteration

One of the most used poetic devices, Alliteration is a phonetic structure and repeated usage of sound or letter used in the first syllable of a word. It is considered as the oldest poetic tool that is generally used for two or more words in a poem. Most of the poets take alliteration into account while framing a particular poem as it adds charm and effectiveness. Sometimes, alliteration perfectly fits in tongue twisters. 

Examples of Alliteration as a Poetic Device

  • Dan’s dog dove deep in the dam, drinking dirty water as he dove
  • She sells seashells by the sea-shore
  • Hannah’s home is warm now, hopefully.
Poetic Devices

Allusion 

By this term, we can understand it is a phrase or a word that is meant to call something without mentioning it clearly. Allusion, which is yet another popularly used poetic device in English, is an ambiguous statement or phrase that leaves a reader in oblivion. 

Examples of Allusion as a Poetic Device:

  • Michel’s rival was in search of his Achilles heel to defeat him 
  • A noted American Scientist faces racism
  • A giant aeroplane crashed like a helpless bird

“Another age shall see the golden ear
Embrown the slope, and nod on the parterre,
Deep harvests bury all his pride has planned,
And laughing Ceres reassume the land.”

Assonance 

In a literary landscape, when two or more words that are close to each other repeats the same vowel sounds then such English poetic devices are known as Assonance. However, they commence with different consonant sounds. Let’s understand this through examples.

Examples of Assonance as a Poetic Device:

  • I feel depressed and restless.
  • You should go and mow the courtyard.
  • Michel took the steering of a car and drove the vehicle.
Poetic Devices

Consonance 

Falling under the list of poetic devices, Consonance is used in both prose and poetry. It can be understood as the repetition of sounds that are produced by the consonants in a phrase or a sentence. It is quite contrary to assonance’s repetition of vowel sounds. Sometimes, the usage of this word gives a rhythmic mood in a writeup. Let’s get it clear with the examples.

Examples of Consonance as a Poetic Device

  • Zubair zooms the zooming lens of a DSLR camera
  • In April, Arvind likes his new Avatar
  • Don’t creep and beep while grandpa falls asleep

“Great, or good, or kind, or fair,
I will ne’er the more despair;
If she loves me, this believe,
I will die ere she shall grieve;
If she slights me when I woo,
I can scorn and let her go;
For if she be not for me,
What care I for whom she be?”

Irony

In the literary landscape, words are often framed in such a way that their original meaning gets changed. As a popular English poetic device, it is actually a figure of speech that helps us understand the difference between reality and appearance. For example, we are anticipating that a particular situation would be a particular expectation but turns quite contradictory to that. 

Examples of Irony as a Poetic Device:

  • The moment I posted the cooking video on Youtube, I broke my smartphone
  • There is a thick smog coming from a fire station, it seems like something is burning 
  • Your heart is soft as a stone in the ocean
Irony

Repetition 

In order to put extreme emphasis on our writing style, we use the repetition technique. Through such poetic devices in English, the words or phrases are repeated in sentences. It is used in poetry as well as the prose sections. 

Examples of Repetition as a Poetic Device:

  • Amid the Coronavirus scare, the Doctor suggested me not take cold food, not to consume ice cream and to avoid attending gatherings.
  • I was watching a crime series where the judge repeatedly commanded “order in the court, order in the court” while stamping his mallet on the table.
  • After watching the movie, I felt that it was a total wastage of time, wastage of energy as well as wastage of money.

It was many and many a year ago,
In a kingdom by the sea,
That a maiden there lived whom you may know..
I was a child and she was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea,
But we loved with a love that was more than love
I and my Annabel Lee …”

Rhyme 

Being the most important poetic devices, these are widely used while framing poems. They play a decisive role in adding more charm and mood in the poem. It is a tool that brings music to the poem in a proper rhythmic structure. Here is an example of rhyme as a poetic device:

Rhyme

Personification

Personification
Personifications of Emotions in “Inside Out”
Courtesy: Troy Erstling

Amongst all the poetic devices, personification is a simple one to understand. As the name suggests, you need to personify inanimate objects or plants or animals or any other living beings with human qualities thus transforming your poetry into lively and filled with imagery and description. Let’s take a look at an example of personification as a poetic device in Two Sunflowers Move in the Yellow Room by William Blake:

“Ah, William, we’re weary of weather,”
said the sunflowers, shining with dew.
“Our traveling habits have tired us.
Can you give us a room with a view?”

Metaphor 

As a figure of speech is a poetic device, a metaphor is used in order to draw a comparison between unrelated things in an implicit or hidden way. Or, this is used when a poet tries to resemble two opposite things or objects on the basis of some common characteristics. 

Examples of Metaphor as a Poetic Device: 

  • Shizuka’s appearance is a great poem
  • The skies of his future began to darken
  • His words are pearls of wisdom
Poetic Devices

Similes 

Similes are those poetic devices that are used to make a comparison to depict the similarities between two different things. However, this resemblance is done by taking words “like” and “as” into account when establishing a direct comparison.  

Examples of Simile as a Poetic Device

  • Shikha is so nervous, her feet are as cold as ice. 
  • You are as sweet as sugar.
  • As soon as I got my blood test done, I felt as light as a feather.
Similies

Calligram

As a poetic device, calligram blends together calligraphy with portraying certain aspects in a poem in a different manner. It uses the formation of letters or the font of specific words to represent a feature of the poem’s subject.

For example, if the poet wants to convey that some words in a poem are meant to be read in a specific way like trembling fonts might represent fear or small font size can show that the words are hushed. Here is an example of calligram as a poetic device in a poem written by Lewis Carroll:

Lewis Carroll’s The Mouse’s Tale, Alice in Wonderland
Courtesy: Arts Sprouts

Ode 

This word has a Greek origin “AEIDEIN”, which means to sing. We can say that these poetic devices are lyrical lines that are not very lengthy. There are mainly three types of Odes namely, Pindar, Horatian and Irregular ode. Here is an example of Ode as a Poetic Device:

Poetic Devices-Ode

Onomatopoeia

In simple words, onomatopoeia can be termed as the creation of a word describing its sound. Some of the popular examples of words sounding similar to their meanings are roar, clap, moo, etc. It is one of the popular poetic devices used in children rhymes to give them a rhythmic and easy to remember structure similar to a jingle. Here is a renowned example of onomatopoeia as a poetic device:

“Oh, the bells, bells, bells!
What a tale their terror tells
Of Despair!
How they clang, and clash, and roar!
What a horror they outpour
On the bosom of the palpitating air!
Yet the ear it fully knows,
By the twanging,
And the clanging,
How the danger ebbs and flows;
Yet the ear distinctly tells,
In the jangling,
And the wrangling.”

Poetic Devices in Fire and Ice

Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.

Fire and Ice by Robert Frost

  • Assonance: Same vowels are repeated in I hold with those who favor fire
  • Alliteration: Favor fire; Some say
  • Imagery: for Destruction Ice, the world will end in fire
  • Rhyme: Desire -> Fire; Twice -> Ice -> Suffice
  • Personification: Fire and Ice are given human qualities by showing them as capable of destruction.

Certainly, the expansion of the English language is unmissable, so is the poetic or literary landscape which has managed to produce wonderful and prolific poets of times. Do you want to take your zest for literature to new heights but are not sure of where to pursue such programs? Don’t worry! Reach out to our experts at Leverage Edu who will help you choose a university and complete the documentation process hassle-free!

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