Although we always wander in different markets for the purpose of buying and selling different products and services, have we ever thought of describing what is a market to anyone? Or have you known about the different forms of market that exist in an economy? Well, the answer to all these questions can be found in this blog on class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter. Through this chapter, you can understand the different structure or forms of the market, their characteristics and features. So get ready with a copy and pen in hand to make quick revision notes on the Class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter for your final exams.
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What is a Market?
To understand the nature and scope of economics of class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, we have got an idea of what is market in terms of economics and commerce. Basically, a market is a mechanism or an arrangement in which the buyers and the sellers are involved. The buyers and the sellers of a commodity or service come into contact with one another and complete the act of sale and/or purchase on mutual agreements by the exchange of money.
Forms of Market
Let us understand the forms of the market. Broadly categorising, there are two forms of market that we came to know from class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, namely:
- Perfect competition
- Imperfect competition
A perfectly competitive market is that type or form of market where there are a large number of buyers and sellers who are selling and buying identical products at a uniform price. There is free entry and exit of firms and the absence of government control.
Since the price under perfect competition remains constant, AR and MR curves coincide with each other and become equal and parallel to the X-axis.
Features Of Perfect Competition
According to class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter there are various features of perfect competition. You can have a look at them here:
- Very large number of buyers and sellers
- Homogeneous or identical products
- Free entry and exit of firms in the market
- Perfect mobility
- Perfect knowledge
- A perfectly elastic demand curve
- No transportation cost involved
According to class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, a monopoly market is that form of market structure where there is a single seller and a large number of buyers for a product or service. There is an absence of close substitutes to the products or service. A monopoly firm is regarded as an industry itself and hence can set price to its maximum advantage.
Under a monopoly market structure, the AR curve or the demand curve is downward sloping from left to right and is less elastic than that of a monopolistic market structure. Hence, in order to increase demand, the firm has to reduce the price.
Must Read: Economics Project for Class 12
Features of Monopoly Market
As per class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, here are some features of a monopoly market structure:
- Single seller and a large number of buyers
- Restrictions on the entry and exit of new firms into the industry
- Full control over price
- Absence of close substitutes in the market
- Price discrimination
- Price maker
- Downward sloping less elastic demand curve
A monopolistic market structure is a form of market structure where there are a large number of buyers and sellers and where the sellers sell differentiated products but not identical or homogenous.
Under the monopolistic market structure, the AR (demand) curve is sloping downward from left to right. Also, the AR curve is more elastic and flatter than that of the AR curve under a monopoly market structure. Hence, when there is any change in price, the change in demand will be relatively more under a monopolistic market structure.
Features Of Monopolistic Market
As per class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, these are the features of a monopolistic market structure:
- A large number of buyers and sellers
- Selling costs which include the cost of advertisement and sales promotion
- Product differentiation which means that the products of different producers or sellers are different on the basis of price, colour, taste, packaging, size, shape and etc.
- Free entry and exit of firms
- Partial control over price
- Lack of perfect knowledge
- Imperfect mobility as factors of production and products are not perfectly mobile
- An elastic and downward sloping demand curve
As per class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, an oligopoly market is that type of market structure in which there are a few large firms or sellers who compete with each other or against each other and have interdependence in their decision making.
On the basis of production, an oligopoly market structure can be categorised into two categories:
- Collusive oligopoly: Where all the firms decide to avoid competition and determine the price and quantity of output.
- Non- collusive oligopoly: Where all firms determine the price and quantity of output on the basis of the action and reaction of the competing and rival firms in the market.
On the basis of product differentiation, an oligopoly market structure can be further categorised into two categories:
- Perfect Oligopoly: It refers to a perfect or pure oligopoly when the firms deal with homogeneous products.
- Imperfect Oligopoly: Where the oligopoly is said to be imperfect because the firms deal in heterogeneous products.
Features of Oligopoly Market
According to class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, these are the features of a monopolistic market structure:
- Few but large sellers
- The firms produce homogeneous or differentiated products
- Price rigidity
- Demand cannot be determined under oligopoly as the demand curve is a kinked demand curve
- All the firms are interdependent with respect to price determination
Some Important Terms
- Equilibrium Price: An equilibrium price is that price at which the market demand is equal to the market supply of a commodity or service.
- Market Equilibrium: A market equilibrium is that state where market demand is equal to the market supply and when there is no excess demand and excess supply in the market.
According to class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination chapter, in a perfectly competitive market structure, the price always remains at the equilibrium level. The market demand and the market supply decide the market price at a point where they intersect each other at a point.
Chain of effects on equilibrium (market) price and equilibrium quantity when there is a change in demand:
- Increase in demand:
- Demand curve shifts to the right
- A situation if excess demand arises at the given market price
- Competition among the buyers
- Consumers are willing to pay more
- Increase in price results in a contraction in demand and extension of supply till the market reaches an equilibrium point where demand is equal to supply.
- The equilibrium price is increased and the equilibrium quantity is also increased.
Note: the situation becomes opposite when the demand is decreased.
- Increase in supply:
- Supply curve shifts to the right
- A situation of excess supply arises at the given market price
- There is competition among sellers which results in the reduction of the commodity
- The producers tend to reduce prices and increase sales in the market
- The decrease in prices lead to an increase in demand and a fall in supply
- Equilibrium price falls and equilibrium quantity rises
Note: the situation becomes opposite when the supply is decreased.
We hope that the above-provided revision and study notes on class 12 Forms of Market and Price Determination will prove to be a helpful and useful blog for the students having economics exam. We wish you all the very best for your exams. For more such amazing reads and study notes and material, reach out to Leverage Edu.