We all have heard the terms acids, bases and salts and often used them in your daily life; complained about the acidic nature of food components, used soap and ammonia for cleaning or heard about salt being created from seawater. Gaining a thorough understanding of Acids, Bases, and Salts class 10 is essential for understanding basic chemistry and extremely important for 10th board examinations. In this blog, we shall cover the definition, characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts.
This Blog Includes:
- What are Acids, Bases and Salts?
- Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases
- How do Acids and Bases React With Metals?
- How Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen carbonates react with Acids?
- How do They React With Each Other?
- What Happens When Metallic Oxides React With Acids?
- What Happens When Non-Metallic Oxides react with Bases?
- What Is Common Between All Acids and All Bases and What Happens to the two When Dissolved in Water Solution?
- How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?
Must Read: NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions
What are Acids, Bases and Salts?
It is essential to know and understand the defining features of acids, bases and salts class 10. Let us begin.
Acid: It is defined as a chemical compound with a sour taste and a pH value less than 7. Examples of organic acids are acetic acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemon juice), lactic acid(milk) and organic acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulphuric acid (H2SO4 ), nitric acid (HNO3).
Base: It is defined as a chemical compound which has a bitter taste and a pH value more than 7. Examples are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ], potassium hydroxide (KOH).
Salt: It is defined as a substance which is odourless, salty in taste and soluble in water. Its pH value is equal to 7.
Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases
In the chapter acids, bases and salts class 10, it is important to understand their chemical properties. There are several natural, synthetic and olfactory indicators which help determine whether a substance is an acid or base in nature:
- Natural Indicators are Litmus, Turmeric and Red Cabbage, petals of flowers like Petunia and Geranium; Litmus is a natural, most common indicator used to determine the pH value of any substance.Acids change the colour of blue litmus to red while Bases change the colour of red litmus paper to blue.
- Synthetic Indicators are Methyl Orange and Phenolphthalein synthesized in labs to test acids and bases.
- Olfactory Indicators are Vanilla, Clove and Onion; they are substances which either lose their smell or have no effect on their olfactories when added to acids or bases.
How do Acids and Bases React With Metals?
An important part of acids, bases and salts class 10 is to find out how they react with metals.
When acids react with metal, they release hydrogen gas and create a compound called Salt.
Acid + Metal = Hydrogen gas + Salt
When base reacts with metal, they release hydrogen gas and produce salt.
When sodium hydroxide reacts with zinc metal then it releases hydrogen gas and gives sodium zincate.
2NaOH(aq) + Zn(s) → Na2ZnO2 (s) + H2 (g) (Sodium zincate)
How Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen carbonates react with Acids?
We now move on to understand the reaction of metal carbonates and hydrogen carbonates with acids in acids, bases and salts class 10. All Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen Carbonates react with Acids to produce its corresponding salt, carbon dioxide and water.
Metal carbonate/Metal hydrogen carbonate + Acid = Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
For instance, when Sodium Carbonate is mixed with Hydrochloric Acid, it produces Sodium Chloride + Carbon dioxide + Water
Na2CO3 (S) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O(I)
How do They React With Each Other?
Next in acids, bases and salts class 10 we find out how they react with each other. When an acid reacts with a base, they tend to nullify each other’s effects. This is called a neutralisation reaction because both substances have a neutralising effect on each other.
A reaction between an acid and base results in the production of salt and water.
Acid + Base = Salt and Water
For instance, when sodium hydroxide is diluted with hydrochloric acid then it gives sodium chloride and water
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O
Also Read: CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus
What Happens When Metallic Oxides React With Acids?
Acids, bases and salts class 10 mentions the reaction of metallic oxides with acids. When metal oxide (also called basic oxides) reacts with acids, they nullify each other and give rise to its corresponding salt and water.For instance, if copper oxide is diluted with hydrochloric acid, the solution turns bluish-green in colour and results in the formation of copper(II) chloride along with water:
CuO + 2HCI = CuCI2 + H2O
What Happens When Non-Metallic Oxides react with Bases?
Moving further in acids, bases and salts class 10, we look at the reaction of non metallic oxides with bases. Non- metallic oxides are acidic in nature which means that when a base reacts with non-metal oxide, it nullifies the effect and produces salt and water.
When calcium hydroxide (base) reacts with carbon dioxide (non-metallic oxide), it produces salt and water.
What Is Common Between All Acids and All Bases and What Happens to the two When Dissolved in Water Solution?
Next we understand the common feature between all acids and all bases in acids, bases and salts class 10. All acids contain hydrogen gas which is released when an acid comes in contact with metal. When acids are dissolved in water solution, they tend to dissociate hydrogen ions:
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) when dissolved in water gives hydrogen ion (H+) and chloride ion (Cl-).
All bases tend to generate negative hydroxide (OH- ) ions in water. Not all bases are soluble in water; the ones that are, are called alkalis. They are soapy, bitter and corrosive in nature and can also be harmful.
How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?
The strength of acids and bases are determined by the number of H+ ions and OH– ions generated as elaborated in acids, salts and bases class 10. Acids which generate more H+ ions are called strong acids, for instance, hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid are strong in nature while acids which generate less H+ ions are called weak acids. For examples, acetic acid.
The strength of an acid or base is determined using the universal indicator or pH indicator. It is composed of many compounds and the different colours indicate the pH of a solution. The scale measures the pH value from 0 to 14; from very acidic to very alkaline. Higher the H+ ions, lower the pH value (0 to 7) while higher the OH – ion in the solution, higher the pH value(7 to 14). The pH value of neutral solution is 7.
Salts are an important part of acids, bases and salts class 10 and are a result of the neutralisation reaction between acid and bases. There are various types of salt produced as a result but the most common and frequently utilised is sodium chloride which is a result of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
The pH value of salts are determined by how strong or weak its acids and bases are. Strong acid and strong base result in neutral pH of salt, salt of strong acid and weak base has a pH value of less than 7 and salt of weak acid and strong base has a pH value of more than 7.
Explore: Class 10 ICSE Chemistry
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