Social Science is a prominent part of the class 8 curriculum. In the given blog, we are going to cover why we need Parliament class 8 study notes. This chapter provides knowledge from the struggle for Independence to reforming democracy by citizens of the country of different walks of life.
This Blog Includes:
Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Chapter 3
- Approval: To give one’s consent to and be favourable towards something. In the context of
this chapter refers to the formal consent (through elected representatives) that
Parliament has as well as the fact that it needs to continue to enjoy the people’s trust.
- Coalition: A temporary alliance of groups or parties. In this chapter, it refers to the alliance
formed by political parties after elections when no party has been able to get adequate
seats to form a clear majority.
- Criticise: To find fault with or disapprove of a person or thing. In the context of this chapter,
it refers to citizens finding fault with the functioning of government.
- Evolution: Process of development from a simple to a complex form and is often used to
discuss the development of a species of plants or animals. In the context of this chapter, it
refers to the way in which protecting women against domestic violence developed from an
urgently felt need to a new law that can be enforced throughout the country.
- Sedition: This applies to anything that the government might consider as stirring up resistance or rebellion against it. In such cases, the government does not need absolute evidence in order to arrest persons. Under the Sedition Act of 1870, the British had a very broad interpretation of what constituted sedition, and what this meant was that they could arrest and detain any person they wanted under this Act. The nationalists considered this law arbitrary because persons were arrested for a variety of reasons that were seldom clarified beforehand as well as because those arrested were often kept in jail without a trial.
- Repressive: To control severely in order to prevent free and natural development or expression. In the context of this chapter, it refers to laws that brutally control persons and often prevent them from exercising their Fundamental Rights including the Right to Speech and Assembly.
- Unresolved: Situations in which there are no easy solutions to problems.
NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3:- Why Do We Need A Parliament?- Summary
This chapter of Civics mentions and discusses the various functions of the Parliament and tells us how actually it is connected to a Democracy and related to the elections. It puts emphasis on the need of a Parliament in the country. Along with that, this chapter also mentions the role of the people in choosing their representatives in a Democracy.
The Indian Parliament was created after 1947 and is an expression of faith that the people of India have in the principles of the Democracy. The Parliament of India is extremely powerful and plays an extremely significant role in the decision-making that in favour of the nation’s benefit.
In the Parliament, there is a President, a Rajya Sabha, and a Lok Sabha. In this chapter, the roles of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are also discussed telling about how the representatives for the same get elected. Law making is also an important role of the Indian Parliament.
Important Notes in NCERT Class 8 Chapter 2
India was under colonial rule until Independence. The general public lived in fear of the British Government and they were not allowed to make decisions on their own. They faced consequences and grave danger whenever they tried to criticize those decisions. The coming of the freedom movement on 15th August 1947 changed the whole situation. Why do we need a parliament class 8 explains the importance of peoples’ decisions in the following ways:
- The citizens are an integral part of any democracy and they have a right to choose their representatives.
- A democratic government is run by the consent, approval, and participation of the people or citizens.
- It improves the quality of the decision-making of the government and democracy provides a method to deal with the differences and conflicts.
- Democracy protects the interests of the citizens or people.
People and Their Representatives
- The main idea of reforming democracy is the consent, approval, and participation of the general public. An individual or group of persons hold a most important place in such a kind of democracy and helps in the functioning of the democratic country. The main principle of the government is to have the trust of the citizens of the country.
- People choose their representatives and approve the government through elections. After the election, one group from among these elected representatives forms the government. The Parliament, which is made up of all representatives together, controls and guides the government. In this sense people, through their chosen representatives, form the government and also control it.
Before moving on to the next topic covered in the Why do we need a Parliament class 8 Study Notes, read our blog on Functions of the Parliament!
Role of the Parliament
The Parliament was formed after 1947 and holds immense power in our system. The Indian Parliament is the true example of faith that the people of India have in a democracy. Therefore, the government is collectively responsible to Parliament for its actions. This implies that Parliament (i.e. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) can hold the government accountable for its decisions, and scrutinize its functioning. The country is divided into numerous constituencies and once elections to the Parliament have taken place, the Parliament needs to perform the following functions:
To Select the National Government
Parliament is formed after the selected candidates who become MP’s or Member of Parliament for a political party to form the government. Since there are 543 elected members in Lok Sabha, to have a majority a party should have at least half the number i.e. 272 members or more.
- The opposition party: The Opposition in Parliament is formed by all the political parties opposing the majority party/coalition. The largest among these parties is called the Opposition party. The opposition party holds an equal position as the majority party.
- Selection of the Executive: An executive is a group of persons who work together to implement the laws made by the Parliament. He/She is selected by the leader of the Lok Sabha i.e. Prime Minister of the country who is elected by the MPs of the Parliament. These ministers then take charge of different areas of government functioning like health, education, finance, etc.
- Coalition Government: When no single party gets the majority, a coalition is formed for the different political parties of the same concern to form the government. This is known as the Coalition Government.
- Rajya Sabha: This house represents the states of India in the Parliament. Its role is to review and alter the laws (if needed) made by Lok Sabha. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states. There are 233 elected members plus 12 members nominated by the President
To Control, Guide, and Inform the Government
- Question Hour Mechanism: It is a way through which MPs can elicit information on the workings of the government. It works in such a manner that it gets easier to know the people’s opinions through their representatives in the parliament. Asking questions of the government is a crucial task for every MP.
- Parliament’s approval: The government gets valuable feedback and is kept on its toes by the questions asked by the MPs. In addition, in all matters dealing with finances, the Parliament’s approval is crucial for the government. This is one of the several ways in which the Parliament controls, guides and informs the government. The MPs as representatives of the people have a central role in controlling, guiding, and informing Parliament and this is a key aspect of the functioning of Indian democracy.
Framing of Laws
Laws are brought in the form of bills before parliament. There are two types of Bills – ordinary bills and money bills. Until it is not passed through proper procedure, it cannot be written under or law or an act.
People in the Parliament
In today’s time, there are many people from different groups who have now started participating in the elections. Parliament now has more and more citizens from different backgrounds. Rural members are also coming forward to cast their votes who have never understood their rights.
There has also been an increase in political participation from the Dalits and backward classes. Let us look at the following table that shows the percentage of the population who voted in the Lok Sabha elections in the years 1977 to 2019 and 1962 to 2019.
Some of the major functions of the parliament are as follows:
1. Legislative Functions
- Every topic on the Union List is susceptible to legislative action by the Parliament. It may also pass legislation on issues covered by the Concurrent List.
- The Union legislation takes precedence over State enactments in the event of a dispute or overlap between their provisions.
- The Union Parliament has the authority to pass laws on topics included in the State List in situations when an emergency has been proclaimed.
2. Financial Control
Union The only body with the authority to specify how money must be raised for public services is Parliament. To that goal, it levies taxes and checks to see that the funds approved for spending to various government agencies have been used for their intended objectives.
3. Providing and Exercising Control Over Cabinet
In our parliamentary system, the executive authority is exercised by a group of legislators who hold a majority in the Lok Sabha, combining the legislative and executive branches of government.
4. Critical Assessment of the Work of the Cabinet
- The Lok Sabha, which is made up of elected representatives of the people, serves as the platform through which it is assured that the Cabinet only holds onto power for as long as it receives a majority of that body’s support.
- Discussions and critical evaluations of the work of the government agencies are among the most crucial duties of the Parliament.
5. Role of Opposition
The presence of opposition also guarantees that the public is informed of opposing viewpoints.
6. An Organ of Information
- In terms of knowledge about how the government operates, the parliament is the most powerful body.
- When requested by the members, Ministers are required to offer information on subjects of government, and the information presented in the Houses is authoritative.
7. Constitutional Functions
- The Parliament has the authority to change the Constitution.
- Constitutional amendments must be approved by both houses with two-thirds of the members present and with a majority of the membership in each chamber.
8. Judicial Functions
Through a set process, Parliament has the only authority to impeach the President and dismiss Supreme Court and High Court justices.
9. Elective Functions
- The Electoral College for choosing the Vice-President is made up of elected members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
- They make up the Electoral College, which is used to elect the President, together with elected representatives from the State Legislatures.
- Additionally, the Parliament has the authority to amend or add to the current State boundaries by law.
Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 8 Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament
Q.1 Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?
Ans: This is because people were united from all walks of life and struggled for independence. They came from various backgrounds in their aspirations for a free, equal, and independent nation where decision-making would be in the hands of the people. The only way in which this would be possible would be through elections.
Explore CBSE Civics Class 7 Notes
|Chapter 1- Equality in Indian Democracy
|Chapter 2- State Government
|Chapter 3- How the State Government Works
|Chapter 4- Gender
|Chapter 5- Women Change the World
|Chapter 6- Media
|Chapter 7- Markets
|Chapter 8- A Shirt in the Market
People choose their representatives and approve the government through elections. After the election, one group from among these elected representatives forms the government. The Parliament, which is made up of all representatives together, controls and guides the government. In this sense people, through their chosen representatives, form the government and also control it.
This applies to anything that the government might consider as stirring up resistance or rebellion against it. In such cases, the government does not need absolute evidence in order to arrest persons. Under the Sedition Act of 1870, the British had a very broad interpretation of what constituted sedition, and what this meant was that they could arrest and detain any person they wanted under this Act. The nationalists considered this law arbitrary because persons were arrested for a variety of reasons that were seldom clarified beforehand as well as because those arrested were often kept in jail without a trial.
To control severely in order to prevent free and natural development or expression. In the context of this chapter, it refers to laws that brutally control persons and often prevent them from exercising their Fundamental Rights including the Right to Speech and Assembly.
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