Class 12th Physics Electrostatics Notes

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Class 12th is a milestone in every student’s academic journey. It is a crucial step and demands utmost dedication and hard work so that one can carve their career in the desired field. To get the course and college of your choice either in India or abroad, it is essential for one to grab a perfect score. Science is considered the most difficult streams and physics, in particular, is considered the toughest subject amongst all others. Electrostatics is one of the Class 12 Physics Chapters and one needs to pay extra attention to this topic. For all those preparing for class 12th Physics, here is a blog on Electrostatics Potential and Capacitance notes. 

Electrostatic Potential 

The Electrostatic Potential can be defined as a point in the electric field which is equal to the quantity of work done per unit positive test charge or in bringing the unit positive charge from an infinite point to that point, against the electrostatic force without acceleration. 

Electrostatic Potential,
V= Work  Done (W)/Charge (q)

The SI unit id Volt (V) and 1V= 1 J/C 

Electrostatics Potential Difference 

The electrostatic potential difference between two points in an electrically charged field is known as the quantity of work done in a unit positive charge which is in motion from one point to another against of electrostatic force without any acceleration. 

 From position A to B along any path, the line of integral of the electrical field is known as the potential difference between two points in an electrical field, i.e., 

Electrostatics Potential Difference
Electrostatic Potential Difference

Important Notes

Now that you are clear with the foundational concept of electrostatic potential and potential difference, let us go through some quick pointer to get a better hold of the concept.

  • Electrostatic Potential because of a point charge q at any given point P at a distance r from it is given by 
  • The Potential at a given point because of a positive charge is positive in nature, whilst because of a negative charge it is negative
  • In the electric field, whenever a positive charge is placed, it will experience a force which will escalate it from the point of greater potential to lower potential. While vice versa is the case with a negative charge
  • Due to an electric dipole, the electrostatic potential at a point P with a position vector r with respect to the midpoint of diploe will be 
Electrostatics Potential
  • Because of the electric dipole, the electrostatic potential on a perpendicular bisector is always zero
  • A system of charges q1, q2, ….qn with a position vector are r1, r2, …..rn at a given point P will have electrostatic potential, 
  •  The electrostatics potential difference because of a thin charged spherical shell carrying charge q and radius r, at any point P, 
Spherical shell carrying charge q and radius
  • The variation of electric potential due to a charged shell at a given distance r from the centre of the shell can be seen through the graphical representation-
Charged Shell
  • The surface which has the same electrostatics potential at every given point on it is called the equipotential surface. The shape of an equipotential surface is determined due to either line charge is cylindrical or the point charge is spherical 
Equipotential surface - Electrostatic
  • In the external field Potential, the potential energy of a single charge q at a point with a given position vector r, in an external field is qV(r), wherein, V(r) is the potential at a point because of external electric field E. 
  • In a system of 2 charges in an external field, the potential energy = 
potential energy
  • The process involved in making any region free from any electric field is called electrostatic shielding. It happens because there is no electrical field existing inside a charged hollow conductor. Hence, the potential inside the shell remains constant
electrostatic shielding

Hopefully, after reading these notes about the Electrostatics Potential, you are all clear about the topic. Confused about how to proceed after class 12th? Get in touch with Leverage Edu and our experts will direct you towards your dream career.

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