Logical Reasoning For Competitive Exams

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Logical Reasoning

Amongst the most common sections included in a competitive exam, Logical Reasoning aims to evaluate candidates on their analytical abilities to simplify complex verbal and mathematical problems. Though reasoning questions may vary, this section generally comprises of statements through which one has to reach logical conclusions. While quantitative aptitude will examine your mathematical basics, logical reasoning sets out to examine how dexterous you are at interpreting patterns, relationships between variables as well as number sequences. If you have been struggling in your preparations for this section, here is a blog that aims to cover the essentials of logical reasoning, it’s general topics as well as some essential tips and tricks that can help you ace it with good scores.

Also Read: Logical Reasoning Books for All Competitive Exams

Logical Reasoning: Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning

From diagrams to comprehension passages, logical reasoning encompasses a wide range of concepts and topics. To begin with, it is important to know that the logical reasoning section is divided into two categories, namely-

Verbal Reasoning
Verbal Reasoning assesses candidates on their ability to logically comprehend problems and concepts expressed in words. These types of logical reasoning questions usually comprise arguments provided with possible conclusions that one needs to choose from. You might also get comprehension passages, puzzles, analogy, symbols, and a host of other different kinds of word-based problems.

Non-Verbal Reasoning
Non-Verbal Reasoning contains images and diagrams and the candidates have to analyse visual information and find suitable answers. 

Also Read: Logical and Analytical Reasoning – A Modern Approach

Topics Covered in Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning is considered to be one of the highest-scoring sections in the competitive exams. Having a good hold in this section may help you excel CA after graduation. Since it is generally divided into verbal and non-verbal, the syllabus for the same may encompass a long list of topics. The table below enlists some of the key topics you need to study while gearing up for this section: 

Verbal Reasoning Non-Verbal Reasoning
Analogy (both word-based and numerical)
Odd Pair (both word-based and numerical)
Classification
Missing Characters
Coding-Decoding
Symbols
Mathematical Operations
Seating Arrangement
(Linear and Circular)
Blood Relations
Ranking
Puzzles
Direction Sense
Syllogism
Venn Diagrams
Assumption or Inference or
Conclusions
Clock and Calendar
Cubes and Dices (predicting colours or numbers on the faces of the object)
Sequences of Figures
Matrix (Finding missing numbers or letters)
Mirrors and Water Reflections
Configuration, Fitting Pieces, Odd Pieces, etc.

Also Read: Number Series Questions for Competitive Exams

Now, let’s elaborate some important topics covered under Logical Reasoning:

  • Analogy: In analogy questions, a specific relationship is given and the similar corresponding relationship has to be identified from the given options.
  • Coding-Decoding: Coding-Decoding questions comprises of some complicated problems that have a common code embedded in them. The candidate has to crack the code in the given question and identify the right answer. 
  • Arrangement: In Logical Reasoning, questions related to seating arrangement are generally asked. In these questions, candidates have to arrange a group of persons fulfilling certain conditions and the types under these questions can be linear as well as circular. 
  • Syllogism: Another significant topic under logical reasoning, syllogism questions join two or more premises to arrive at a conclusion. They contain major premise and minor premise on which conclusion is to be drawn but more of a general and specific statement.
  • Venn Diagrams: Logical Venn diagrams constitute reasoning problems that ask the candidates to analyse the relationship between different items. In these types of questions, there will be 4 diagrams and candidates have to select one which best describes the relationship between varied items.

Explore: General Intelligence and Reasoning Syllabus For SSC

Logical Reasoning Solved Examples 

Now that we are familiar with the types of questions we may come across under this category, let us also go through some important solved examples based on logical reasoning-

Q. DNN, FPP, HRR, _____, LVV

  1. GRR
  2. GSS
  3. JTT
  4. ITT

Explanation: The 1st letters are in alphabetical order, with a letter skipped in between each segment: D, F, H, J, L. The 2nd & 3rd letters are repeated; these letters are also in order with a skipped letter as was in the previous case: N, P, R, T, V.

Thus, the answer is C. 

Q. Find the next number in the sequence: 16, 30, 54, 88, 132…

  1. 186
  2. 188
  3. 190
  4. 206

Explanation: Logic is: difference is 14, 24, 34, 44, 54….

Next term should be 132 + 54 = 186

Thus, the answer is A.

Q. Statement 1: Pens cost more than pencils.
Statement 2: Pens cost less than erasers.
Statement 3: Erasers cost more than pencils and pens.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

  1. True
  2. False
  3. Uncertain
  4. Cannot be determined 

Explanation: If the first two statements are true, then Erasers are the most expensive of the three stationery items.

Thus, the Answer is A.

Q.Dan is Joshua’s son and Guy’s brother. Margaret is Guy’s mother and Judy’s daughter. Which of the statements below is definitely true?

  1. Judy is Dan’s mother-in-law
  2. Margaret is Dan’s mother
  3. Judy is Joshua’s grandmother
  4. None of the above

Explanation: Dan and Guy are siblings. However, we do not know whether they are full siblings or half brothers. Margaret, Guy’s mother, might not be Dan’s mother. Joshua, who is Dan’s father, might not be Guy’s father.

Thus, the answer is D.

Q. If there are no dancers that aren’t slim and no singers that aren’t dancers, then which statements are always true?

  1. There is not one slim person that isn’t a dancer
  2. All singers are slim
  3. Anybody slim is also a singer
  4. None of the above

Explanation: 

The tricky part here is that the question is phrased negatively. This means that we first of all need to identify the nature of each group. Then, we establish the relationship between the groups. If we draw ourselves a diagram (as in the example above), the relationship between the groups becomes clearer. The only true statement is that all singers are slim.

Thus, The answer is B.

Practice Worksheet

Download this exclusive worksheet to solve some important Logical Reasoning Questions

Steps to Follow to Solve Logical Reasoning Questions

To solve logical reasoning questions successfully, it is advisable to follow the below-mentioned steps. 

  1. Read the information slowly and carefully to understand it 
  2. Analyze all the critical logical information 
  3. Run all the possible solutions through your mind
  4. Once you get the answer, compare it to all the other possibilities
  5. Come to a correct, logical conclusion

The following topics are included in the logical reasoning question section:

  • Verbal Questions: A pen and paper is not required for these type of questions. They can be answered verbally.
  • Image-Based Questions: In such questions, paper construction based images or mirror images may be given. Candidates will be asked to find dissimilar or similar figures.
  • Sequence Questions: A sequence or series of alphabets/ people/ months/ days may be given and questions will be asked.
  • Puzzle Questions: Arranging or rearranging of of days/ people/ places/ months may be given.

Things to Keep in Mind

While solving logical reasoning questions, the most important thing you must keep in mind is to find the common pattern that every statement or given argument comprises. Further, to help prepare for this section in an efficient manner, here are some of the key tips and tricks you can utilise:

  • Take help from previous year question papers to study the different types of logical reasoning questions that come in various competitive exams.
  • Go through the topics mentioned above and memorise the tricks to simplify them and solve them efficiently.
  • Always read the question carefully before jumping directly towards the answer. It is always better to spend a few seconds to focus on the question which will further help you grasp the pattern and find the right answer.
  • Continuous practice is the pivotal success mantra that can assist in successfully cracking the logical reasoning section. Take mock tests and make sure that you time yourself while solving every section. This will help you find those areas where you can save more time and those on which you still need to work.

Best Books for Logical Reasoning 

By practising the logical reasoning questions through these books, you will be able to score well in your desired competitive exams-

Hence, you can efficiently ace the Logical Reasoning section if you have consistently practised it and learned the tricks to identify patterns and crack different kinds of questions. If you are aspiring to appear for a competitive exam like GMAT, GRE, amongst others and don’t where to start, our Leverage Edu experts can guide you in creating the right preparation strategy along with equipping you with the right study material and exam day tips to ensure that you successfully crack it with flying colours.

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