Analytical Reasoning For Competitive Exams

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Analytical Reasoning

From civil services and MBA entrance exams to competitive exams after 12th and general ability tests, universities and organizations around the world test analytical reasoning and mental aptitude in one or the other way. CAT 2020, NTSE, SCRA exam, AFCAT Exam, SSC CGL, AMCAT, RBI, Railway Recruitment exams, LIC, IBPS in addition to technical and non-technical examinations are some of the famous Indian entrance tests which follow the same route. Along with questions on general awareness, verbal ability, comprehension, and quantitative aptitude, problems based on analytical aptitude also forms a crucial part of such competitive exams.

Important Topics Under Analytical Reasoning

Important topics under analytical reasoning are-

The difficulty level may vary depending on the intent and the objective of the conducting authority. 

Types of Analytical Reasoning 

All analytical reasoning questions are not the same and different types of questions are asked in various exams. Here are some of the types:

  1. Statement and Argument: This section includes questions that ask for a logical argument.
  2. Statement and Assumption: Questions based on this are mainly to find out the pre-based assumption of the statement.
  3. Statement and Conclusion: For answering these questions, students are required to find out the most logical conclusion they derive from a given set of statements.
  4. Statement and Course of Action: For questions like these, students must pick a valid course of action for the given statement.
  5. Cause and Effect: For answering questions based on this format, students have to establish the cause and effect relationship between the specified statements. 
  6. Syllogism: These type of questions include a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion 

Analytical Reasoning Question Structure

Students must be aware of the format of analytical reasoning questions. In this section, we shall talk about the question structure of analytical reasoning.

  1. It contains an introductory passage that introduces you to the question.
  2. Secondly, you will be given rules that you must follow to answer the set of questions given below.
  3. Based on the introductory passage, you will be given questions that you must answer keeping in mind the rules that have been specified.

How to Answer Questions based on Analytical Reasoning

Analytical reasoning questions can a bit tricky and difficult but if you follow a correct way it can be solved without wasting a single minute, we have briefly discussed how to answer questions on Analytical Reasoning:

  1. Students must essentially go through the paragraph well enough to understand what it means and tries to convey.
  2. To make it easier, students should then make supporting diagrams to help them answer those questions that follow.
  3. Thirdly, while making the diagram, students must note the rules that are specified and needed to answer the questions.
  4. Finally, based on the rules and supporting diagrams students must logically come to a conclusion and make deductions. 

Do’s and Don’ts of Analytical Reasoning

For answering questions based on analytical reasoning, students must make sure they follow the following Do’s and Don’ts :

  1. They must not panic as panic leads to hurry. In hurry, students might miss out on easy questions as well.
  2. Students must answer questions in an organized manner and not hurry as they tend to make trivial mistakes that can be easily avoided when in a hurry.
  3. Students can look out for other ways of trying to answer questions if possible.

Solved Examples

Let us take a look at some of the solved examples to understand this topic better-

Q. Calculate the number of triangles in the given figure-

  1. 12
  2. 22
  3. 18 
  4. 26

Solution: Let us begin by labelling the image like- 

  • The simplest triangles are AHB, GHI, BJC, GFE, GIE, IJE, CEJ and CDE i.e. 8 in number.
  • The triangles composed of two components each are HEG, BEC, HBE, JGE and ICE i.e. 5 in number.
  • The triangles composed of three components each are FHE, GCE and BED i.e. 3 in number.
  • There is only one triangle i.e. AGC is composed of four components.
  • There is only one triangle i.e. AFD is composed of nine components.
  • Thus, there are 8 + 5 + 3 + 1 + 1 = 18 triangles in the given figure.

Answer: C Part

Q. Which block will come next in the sequence- 

Solution: 

  • The first is the number of sides the shape has, which decreases by one every time.
  • The second is the number of dots inside the shape which is one less than the number of sides the shape has.
  • The correct answer to this question, therefore, is A.

Answer: Part A

Q. Priest: Do you speak to the devil and follow his biddings?
Parishioner: Yes.
Priest: You must be lying. Nobody who is in league with the devil tells the truth.

Why can the priest’s behavior be considered paradoxical?

  1. He accused the parishioner of being in league with the devil, but he later changed his story. 
  2. He relied upon the answer of the parishioner in order to reject his response. 
  3. His behavior was entirely within accordance with religious law, but he was accusing the parishioner of violating that law. 
  4. While he is questioning the parishioner about possible association with the devil, he doesn’t actually believe in such a thing. 
  5. He was the one who asked the question, but he refused to accept the answer.

Solution: The answer is B. The paradox is the priest using the parishioner’s answer as a criterion for judging itself! He did not later change his accusation (A). Following/violating religious law (C) is irrelevant. There is no reason to think the priest doesn’t believe in the devil (D). The questioner rejecting the answer (E) is not necessarily paradoxical if he doesn’t like the answer. (This reflects the familiar conundrum: “Are you lying?” “Yes.” “Then you must be telling the truth…”).

Also Read: Solve Circular Seating Arrangement Questions

Analytical Reasoning: Practice Questions

It is important that students practice as many types of analytical reasoning questions as possible to be comfortable when solving different patterns followed by exam setting committees. Here are a few examples:

Answer the following questions based on the information given in the passage.

Expense in the school sports committee must be reduced in five of the eight areas, namely, E,F,G,H,I,J, K and L under a few conditions:

  • Reductions in both E and J lead to a reduction in K.
  • If H is reduced, then neither I nor J are reduced.
  • F is not reduced when I is reduced.
  • Out of F, G and I, only two are reduced.
  1. If both G and J are reduced, choose a pair of areas which is not reduced.
  1. E & F
  2. E & H
  3. F & H
  4. F & I
  5. I & K

Answer: 3. F & H

March is introduced by April as the son of the only brother of his father’s wife. How is April related to March?

  1. Son
  2. Brother
  3. Son-in-Law
  4. Uncle
  5. Cousin

Answer: Cousin

From the given statements, choose the conclusions which logically follow:

Statements

  1. All chips are computers.
  2. No computer is a mobile.
  3. All mobiles are tablets.

Conclusions

  1. No tablet is a chip.
  2. Some tablets are chips.

Options

  1. Only conclusion A follows.
  2. Only conclusion B follows.
  3. Either conclusion A or B follows.
  4. Neither conclusion A nor B follows.
  5. Both conclusion A and B follow.

Answer:1. Only Conclusion A follows. 

Related Articles: Mensuration Formulas

Tips and Tricks to Solve Analytical Reasoning Questions

Courtesy: wifistudy

Reference Books

To make your job easier, we have curated a list of trusted books on analytical reasoning that are considered no less than essentials by coaching centers as well as successful candidates. Further, many books also have practice tests that serve as a crucial way of testing your knowledge in a virtual exam environment. 

Books Author Link
A Modern Approach to Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning (2019-20 Session) R.S. Aggarwal [S.Chand] Buy Here
A New Approach to REASONING Verbal & Non-Verbal B.S. Sijwali and Indu Sijwali [Arihant] Buy Here
Analytical Reasoning (2018-2019) Session MK Panday  Buy Here
How to Crack Test Of Reasoning Jaikishan and Premkishan [Arihant] Buy Here
Analytical & Logical Reasoning For CAT & Other Management Entrance Tests Peeyush Bhardwaj [Arihant] Buy Here
Logical and Analytical Reasoning (Useful for All Competitive Exams) A.K.Gupta Buy Here
Logical Reasoning, Analytical Ability & GMA CSAT Paper II Sanjeev Joon & R.A.Sharma Buy Here
Shortcuts in Reasoning (Verbal, Non-Verbal, Analytical & Critical) for Competitive Exams Disha Experts Buy Here

Looking for exam patterns? Then read: CAPF Exam Pattern, NDA Exam Pattern, CDS Exam Pattern

Previous Year Practice Questions

These questions have been taken from official sample papers of competitive exams Now that you are familiar with the types of questions and important tips and tricks. Here are some practice question on Analytical Reasoning:

  1. The mother is four times older than her son. After four years the sum of their age would be 63 years. What is her son’s present age?
  1. 12
  2. 13
  3. 11
  4. 12.5

2. Statement: Most long-distance runners practice cardio training on a regular basis. Assumptions: I. Cardio training is useful for long-distance running. 

II. Without cardio training, long-distance running is impossible. 

(a) If only assumption I is implicit 

(b) If only assumption II is implicit

(c) If either I or II is implicit 

(d) If neither I nor II is implicit 

3. Statement: The government is building an expressway connecting the major trading cities of India. 

Assumptions: I. The government has sought loans from foreign banks to build the expressway. II. Good roads play an important role in improving trade and commerce. 

(a) If only assumption I is implicit

 (b) If only assumption II is implicit

 (c) If either I or II is implicit 

(d) If neither I nor II is implicit

4. Arvind takes special tutions for Chemistry, Physics, Geography, Mathematics, and Biology from Monday to Saturday. The class for each subject is on a different day with one day in between being a rest day.

 (i) Geography class is neither on the first day nor on the last day but is held before Physics

(ii) Mathematics class is immediately after the day on which the Physics class is held

(iii) Chemistry class is on the day immediately before the rest day.

(iv) Mathematics class and Biology class were held with a two-day gap between them. 

(v) Biology class was held on the day immediately after the rest day. 

  1. Which of the following is a rest day? 

(a) Wednesday (b) Tuesday (c) Friday (d) Thursday 

  1.  Chemistry class and Mathematics class have a gap of how many days between them? 

(a) None (b) Two (c) Four (d) Three 

  1.  Which of the following is a wrong statement?

(a) Geography class is on the day immediately before Physics class. 

(b) Mathematics class is held three days after the day on which Biology class is held. 

(c) There is a gap of three days between the Chemistry class and Physics class. 

An important success mantra the aspirants must follow during their preparation phase is that a carefully-made study plan that accentuates your skills and abilities is vital to crack analytical reasoning or other sections in competitive examinations. This not only helps you play to your strengths but also highlights the areas where a little more effort and practice is required. Consult the experts at Leverage Edu in a 30 minutes free counselling session who can guide you in preparing a personalized strategy, thereby, assisting you in sailing through your exam with flying colors.

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