What is the Full Form of TRNA?

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TRNA full form

The full form of TRNA is Transfer Ribonucleic Acid. It is a type of RNA molecule that helps in decoding an RNA messenger sequence into a protein. Interestingly, the tRNAs function only at specific sites in the ribosome during translation. It is a process that includes synthesizing of protein from an mRNA molecule. Earlier, it was also known by different names such as soluble RNA and sRNA. 

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tRNA Structure

Here are a few important points about the tRNA structure:

  • tRNAs are generally 76-90 nucleotides long.
  • They look like a clover leaf with the tertiary structure representing an inverted L shape.
  • The folded structure of the tRNAs happens due to hydrogen bonding between complementary bases.
  • Other important constituents of tRNA include an acceptor arm, anticodon loop, DHU loop, TΨC Loop, and variable loop. 
  • The acceptor stem is located at one end of the tRNA molecule. 
  • The anticodon loop is located at the opposite end and contains a sequence of three necleotides, known as anticodon.
  • The variable loop is located between the acceptor stem and anticodon loop.
  • Each amino acid is tied to specific tRNAs.
  • tRNAs cannot recognize stop codons. 

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tRNA Function

The important functions of tRNA include:

  • It plays an important role in protein synthesis.
  • It acts as an adapter molecule for linking amino acids to its specific mRNA. 
  • The tRNA transfers the amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain in the ribosomes.
  • The decoding of codons of mRNA by specific tRNAs continues until it translates the sequence of a polypeptide chain. 

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