The full form of TRNA is Transfer Ribonucleic Acid. It is a type of RNA molecule that helps in decoding an RNA messenger sequence into a protein. Interestingly, the tRNAs function only at specific sites in the ribosome during translation. It is a process that includes synthesizing of protein from an mRNA molecule. Earlier, it was also known by different names such as soluble RNA and sRNA.
Here are a few important points about the tRNA structure:
- tRNAs are generally 76-90 nucleotides long.
- They look like a clover leaf with the tertiary structure representing an inverted L shape.
- The folded structure of the tRNAs happens due to hydrogen bonding between complementary bases.
- Other important constituents of tRNA include an acceptor arm, anticodon loop, DHU loop, TΨC Loop, and variable loop.
- The acceptor stem is located at one end of the tRNA molecule.
- The anticodon loop is located at the opposite end and contains a sequence of three necleotides, known as anticodon.
- The variable loop is located between the acceptor stem and anticodon loop.
- Each amino acid is tied to specific tRNAs.
- tRNAs cannot recognize stop codons.
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The important functions of tRNA include:
- It plays an important role in protein synthesis.
- It acts as an adapter molecule for linking amino acids to its specific mRNA.
- The tRNA transfers the amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain in the ribosomes.
- The decoding of codons of mRNA by specific tRNAs continues until it translates the sequence of a polypeptide chain.
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