NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice (Free PDF)

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NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice contains important questions and answers in the lesson. These solutions are prepared by subject matter experts who are well-versed in the latest CBSE guidelines. You can use these answers to attempt questions in unit tests and term examinations. 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice

Now, let us explore important questions and answers in NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice.

Questions on Page No. 101

Ques 1. Why do we need a law on minimum wages?

Find out:

a) What is the minimum wage for a construction worker in your state?

b) Do you think the minimum wage for a construction worker is adequate, low or high?

c) Who sets the minimum wages?

Ans: Minimum wage laws exist to protect workers from unfair pay. They ensure a baseline income that allows workers to meet basic needs. This helps prevent exploitation by employers who might otherwise offer very low wages. Additionally, minimum wage can boost the economy by increasing consumer spending power.

(a) Find out yourself.

(b) The minimum wage for a construction worker is extremely low. Here are a few reasons why it is inadequate:

  • The minimum wage for construction workers in India might not cover basic necessities like housing, food, and healthcare. This gap between income and living expenses makes the minimum wage inadequate.
  • The minimum wage is often set as a single rate for construction workers. This doesn’t account for skill variations. A skilled mason or plumber deserves more than a helper, but the minimum wage might not reflect this difference.
  •  The cost of living can vary significantly across Indian states.  A minimum wage set nationally might be adequate in some areas but leave workers struggling in high-cost cities.

( c) In India, the Union and State governments set up the minimum wages as per the provisions of the Minimum Wages Act. 

Questions on Page No. 107

Ques 1. Why do you think enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory?

Ans: Here is why safety laws are important in any factory:

  • Strong enforcement safeguards factory workers from accidents and illnesses caused by unsafe machinery, hazardous materials, or poor working conditions.
  •  Enforcing safety laws minimises worker’s compensation claims and potential lawsuits.
  • A safe work environment fosters a sense of security and well-being among employees, leading to higher morale and potentially increased productivity.

Questions on Page No. 108

Ques 1. A ‘clean environment is a public facility.’ Can you explain this statement?

Ans: Public facilities are typically physical spaces managed by the government, like parks or libraries. A clean environment is not a designated place, but rather the overall state of our air, water, and land. However, a clean environment functions similarly to a public good. It’s a shared resource that everyone benefits from, and maintaining it requires collective effort.

So, while not a physical facility, a clean environment acts like a public good essential for everyone’s health and well-being.

Ques 2. Why do we need new laws?

Ans: Environmental laws exist to protect our air, water, and land. Without them, companies might prioritize profit over the environment, leading to pollution and harming our health and well-being.

Ques 3. Why are companies and contractors able to violate environmental laws?

Ans: Here are some reasons why companies and contractors might violate environmental laws:

  • Sometimes, the environmental laws themselves might not be strong enough to effectively deter violations. Penalties might be too low or poorly enforced.
  • Companies may prioritise short-term profits over long-term environmental consequences. The chapter talks about how businesses can prioritise profit over worker safety or fair wages. 
  • In some cases, bribery or corruption might allow companies to avoid consequences for environmental violations. The chapter mentions the importance of social justice, which includes ensuring the fair application of laws.
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice

Here are NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice for you:


Ques 1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.

Ans: Do it yourself.

Ques 2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?

Ans: Here are the advantages of setting up production in India:

  • Foreign companies are attracted to India due to its competitive labour costs. In comparison to wages in foreign countries, the wages offered to workers in India are considerably lower. This increases the cost-efficiency for businesses.
  • India offers the advantage of lower labour costs alongside the potential for extended working hours, allowing foreign companies to optimise their production processes economically.
  • By operating in India, foreign companies can minimise supplementary expenses such as providing accommodation for their workforce. This streamlined approach enables companies to reduce overheads and bolster their profit margins.
  • Additionally, cost-saving measures can extend to adjustments in working conditions, potentially compromising safety standards. This strategy further contributes to cost reduction for foreign companies establishing operations in India.

Ques 3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.

Ans: No, the Bhopal gas tragedy victims did not receive true justice. While some financial compensation was awarded, it fell far short of the immense damage caused. The disaster stemmed from a blatant disregard for safety, yet those responsible have not faced significant punishment.

Here are the reasons to prove that the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice:

  • Inadequate compensation: The USD 470 million settlement is a fraction of the USD 3 billion sought, and many still struggle with health issues and lack clean water.
  • Incomplete rehabilitation: Many victims have not received proper healthcare or regained lost livelihoods. Compensation for lifelong disabilities does not address the root cause of their suffering.
  • Ongoing legal battle: Pending court cases and the paltry sentences highlight the lack of true accountability.

The victims’ ongoing fight for safe water, healthcare, and fair punishment demonstrates the struggle for genuine justice that continues to this day.

Ques 4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement?

Why is enforcement so important?

Ans: Law enforcement refers to the implementation of law. The government is in charge of this. It is important to enforce laws when they are meant to protect the weak from the strong. Enforcing laws is crucial to make sure that every worker gets paid fairly. Sometimes, workers who are poor or not very powerful feel afraid to ask for fair wages because they worry about losing their jobs or facing punishment. Employers take advantage of this fear to pay them less than they deserve. In such situations, the authorities need to make sure that the laws are followed and that everyone gets fair treatment.

Ques 5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.

Ans: In many societies, ordinary people often face exploitation. In such situations, it is the government’s responsibility to make sure that fairness and equality prevail. This allows all citizens to assert their rights. Here are some examples to support the statement that ‘laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair’:

  • To prevent workers from being taken advantage of by unethical employers, the government of India has enacted several laws like the Payment of Wages Act (1936), Minimum Wages Act (1948), and Payment of Bonus Act (1965). These acts aim to safeguard workers from being underpaid and exploited.
  • The Factories Act of 1948 is another legislation introduced by the government. This law sets standards for the health, safety, welfare, and working conditions of factory workers. It is enforced by state governments through their factory inspectorates.
  • The Consumer Protection Act is designed to shield consumers from risks associated with substandard products like electrical appliances, food items, and medicines. The Bureau of Indian Standards, a government body, monitors product quality to ensure consumer safety.
  • Additionally, the government has implemented laws to prevent essential items such as food grains, sugar, and kerosene from being excessively priced.
  • The Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 was enacted to safeguard the environment and prevent health hazards to humans.

Ques 6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 km away from the present location. Write about how your life would change. Read out your responses in the classroom.

Ans: Do it yourself

Ques 7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.

Ans: Here are the roles of the government that we read in this unit:

  • The government ensures access to essential public services such as healthcare, sanitation, and water supply to prevent their control by private companies.
  • It upholds laws to combat child labour, ensuring that children are not exploited for work.
  • The government establishes minimum wage standards for workers and regularly updates them to maintain fair compensation.
  • It enforces workplace safety regulations to protect workers from hazards and accidents.
  • The government implements environmental safety laws to preserve natural resources and prevent pollution.
  • It safeguards consumer interests by preventing overpricing and ensuring the quality of products.
  • Organisations that fail to adhere to environmental protection policies and contribute to pollution are subject to punishment by the government.

Ques 8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to

(a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution?

Can you suggest some other measures?


(a) Sources of Air pollution:

  • Traffic congestion and older vehicles with poor emission control.
  • Factories release pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides during production processes.
  • Burning of firewood, dung, and agricultural waste for cooking and heating releases harmful particulates.
  • Demolition and construction activities generate dust particles that pollute the air.

(b) Sources of water pollution:

  • Untreated industrial effluents contaminate rivers and groundwater with toxic chemicals and heavy metals.
  • Untreated sewage from homes and cities pollutes water bodies with harmful bacteria and organic matter.
  • Pesticides, fertilisers, and other agricultural chemicals seep into water sources, causing contamination.
  • Ritualistic immersion of idols and throwing puja waste into rivers pollutes waterways.

( c) Sources of soil pollution:

  • Improper disposal of hazardous industrial waste contaminates soil with toxins.
  • Excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers.
  • Loss of tree cover (deforestation) leads to soil erosion, which washes away nutrients and can lead to desertification.
  • Improper waste disposal, including burning, pollutes soil with harmful substances.

Steps taken by central and state governments to reduce environmental pollution:

  • Stricter emission standards** for vehicles and industries
  • Promotion of public transport and electric vehicles
  • Investment in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power
  • Wastewater treatment plants to treat sewage before discharge
  • Regulation of agricultural practices to minimise pesticide and fertiliser use
  • Afforestation programs to increase tree cover and improve soil health
  • Laws and regulations to control industrial waste disposal

Additional measures to reduce air, water, and soil pollution:

  • Improved waste management systems: Invest in recycling and composting infrastructure to reduce reliance on landfills.
  • Sustainable development initiatives: Promote eco-friendly practices in industries and agriculture.
  • Public awareness campaigns: Educate people about the importance of environmental protection and ways to reduce their impact.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Encourage industries to adopt cleaner technologies and minimise pollution.
  • Support for green innovations: Invest in research and development of new technologies for pollution control and environmental remediation.

By implementing these measures, India can make significant progress towards a cleaner and healthier environment.

Ques 9. How was the environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.

Ans: In the past, the environment was considered a resource that could be exploited without any restrictions, allowing industries and individuals to pollute without consequences. India had minimal laws in place to safeguard the environment, and government attention to environmental protection was lacking.

However, there has been a shift in mindset. The government has implemented numerous laws and initiatives, such as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, to protect and preserve the environment. Courts have issued rulings emphasizing the right to a healthy environment as a fundamental aspect of the right to life. Various measures and regulations have been established to combat pollution and restore the cleanliness of rivers. Additionally, the government has the authority to impose fines on those who degrade our environment.

Chapter 1: The Indian Constitution 
Chapter 2: Understanding Secularism
Chapter 3: Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes
Chapter 4: Judiciary
Chapter 5: Understanding Marginalisation
Chapter 6: Confronting Marginalisation
Chapter 7: Public Facilities 
Chapter 8: Law and Social Justice
Consumer Rights in India: Definition, Types & MoreWhat is the Full Form of BIS?
Environment Conservation SpeechSpeech on Environmental Awareness for Students in English
Essay on Environment: Examples & TipsEssay on Pollution
Scope and Importance of Environmental Studies in SchoolEssay on Sustainable Development
Best Save Environment Speech for Students in EnglishSpeech on Endangered Species Need Protection


Q1. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation?

Ans: You can download the NCERT chapters PDF from the official website of NCERT

Q2. Where can I download NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation?

Ans: You can download questions and answers to Class 8 Civics from Leverage Edu. 

Q3. Are NCERT Class 8 Civics Notes useful for UPSC CSE?

Ans: Yes. NCERT study material by Leverage Edu is useful for UPSC CSE aspirants. 

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Civics.

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