NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes (Free PDF)

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NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation notes include all important topics of the lesson. You will get a detailed explanation of each issue and Act included in this Civics chapter. These notes are prepared by subject matter experts so you may use them as your bible for your school exam. Also, these notes are beneficial for students appearing for government exams in India

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes

The chapter explores the various strategies employed by marginalised groups like Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, and women to challenge existing inequalities. Despite facing discrimination, these groups use religious solace, armed struggle, self-improvement, education, and economic uplift to address their situations. They assert their equal rights as citizens of a democratic nation, often citing the Constitution of India to support their claims. The Constitution is seen as a crucial tool in their struggles, as it guarantees fundamental rights that should be upheld. 

The chapter also explores how these rights are transformed into laws aimed at protecting marginalised groups from exploitation. Additionally, it discusses government initiatives aimed at formulating policies to facilitate the development and access to resources for these marginalised communities.

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Fundamental Rights Safeguarding Minorities in India

The Constitution defines basic rights available to all Indians equally. The law of the land aims to ensure justice and equality for all through fundamental rights. Marginalised groups actively use these rights to fight against discrimination and protect their cultural identities. These groups use these rights in two ways, which are:

  • Demand recognition of injustice: They insist their fundamental rights have been violated, forcing the government to address the issue.
  • Enforce existing laws: They demand the government uphold the laws protecting their rights.

Articles of the Constitution that Protect the Rights of Marginalised Groups

Article 15, Article 17, and Article 29 of the Indian Constitution protect marginalised communities against discrimination by granting them certain fundamental rights. Minorities can invoke their rights when facing unfair treatment. For instance, Muslims, Parsis, and Adivasis have control over their cultural content and educational practices under Article 29. On the other hand, Dalits use Article 15 and Article 17 to fight for denied equality.

Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination on account of religion, caste, race, sex, or place of birth

As per the Article 15 of the Indian Constitution:

  • The state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
  • No citizen shall on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to —

(a) Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or

(b) The use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability

Article 17 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the Right to Equality to the citizens of the country by:

  • Abolishing untouchability
  • Guaranting Dalits equal access to education, temples, public facilities, etc.
  • Making the practice of untouchability a punishable offence.

Article 29:  Protection of Interests of Minorities

According to Article 29 of the Constitution of India:

  • Any citizen residing in the territory of India or any part of the country with a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
  • No citizen shall be denied admission into any education institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.
NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes: Fundamental Rights Safeguarding Minorities in India
Right to Freedom (Article 19-22)
Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29 & 30)
Article 21: Right to Life and Right to Personal Liberty
All About Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)

Government Initiatives for Marginalised Groups in India

The government of India implements laws and policies to protect citizens, especially marginalised groups. The Union Government and state governments devise specific schemes for tribal and Dalit populations, aiming to provide opportunities and address inequalities. For instance, governments set up hostels for Dalit and Adivasi students to access education in distant locations. Additionally, the government has a Reservation Policy to uplift the social status of people from oppressed castes and minority communities. 

Reservation Policy in India

Reservation aims to create a level playing field by offering advantages to historically disadvantaged groups. This policy sparks debate due to concerns about meritocracy and potential misuse. However, these arguments hold no water because the discrimination persists and there is a lack of representation till today. Thus, to empower the oppressed communities, seats must be reserved in educational institutions, jobs, and arms of the government.

Mechanism of Reservation Policy

  • The government identifies Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and Backward Castes (BCs) for receiving benefits.
  • Applicants for education and government jobs need to prove their caste/tribe status.
  • Candidates need to secure minimum cut-off marks to secure admission and employment to ensure that only deserving Dalit and tribal candidates benefit from reservations.

Also Read: ️Essay on Social Issues: Samples for Class 8 Students

Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis

The Indian government, judiciary, and the Constitution of India protect the rights of Dalits and Adivasis through various acts, judgements, and rights, respectively.

Case Study: Rathnam’s Fight Against Discrimination

Context of the case: Jakmalgur village prepares for a festival where a Dalit traditionally washes priests’ feet. During the festival, a young Dalit man, Rathnam, educated in engineering, refuses to perform the ritual, citing its discriminatory nature.

Consequences of his refusal:

  • Angered villagers ostracise Rathnam and his family.
  • His hut is burned down.

After being discriminated against, Rathnam filed a case under the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. After filing a report under the act media attention brought the issue to light and the ritual was stopped. However, Rathnam’s family was forced to leave due to ongoing ostracisation.

Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

The act was enacted to address historical mistreatment and violence faced by Dalits and Adivasis. It was a response to increased assertion of rights by these communities in the 1970s and 80s.

Objectives of the Act

  • Punish perpetrators of crimes against Dalits and Adivasis.
  • Deter such acts through stricter punishments.
  • Raise awareness about the gravity of these offences.

Key Clauses of the Act

The act defines various levels of offences, which are:

  • Humiliation: Includes forcing consumption of inedible substances, stripping, and public humiliation.
  • Exploitation: Penalises wrongful land seizure and forced labour.
  • Violence against Women: Addresses sexual assault against Dalit and Adivasi women. 
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Adivasis Land Rights and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

The Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, serves as a legal tool for Adivasis to fight for their land rights. As per this landmark legislation, anyone other than an Adivasi, occupying tribal land illegally will be punished. This provision was included under the act after Adivasi activists highlighted the role of state governments in land rights violations. 

Demands of the Tribal Population

Adivasi activists like CK Janu argued that the state government acts as violaters of the land rights of the indigenous people. He stated that state governments permit non-tribal businesses like timber merchants to exploit tribal land and forcefully displace Adivasis from their traditional territories. Owing to these reasons, Advivasis should have Land Rights under the 1989 Act. 

Therefore, he put forward the following demands of the tribal people:

  • Compensation for evicted Adivasis who cannot reclaim land.
  • Government-funded rehabilitation plans for displaced communities.
  • Funds used for development projects on Adivasi land should be directed towards their well-being.

Constitutional Safeguards Guaranteed to the Tribal Population

Also, Constitutional provisions guarantee protection against land dispossession. Here are the constitutional safeguards guaranteed to the tribal population:

  • Adivasi land cannot be sold to non-tribals.
  • Evicted Adivasis have the right to reclaim their land.

Check Out: The Important Acts in India For Competitive Exams

Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, was enacted to address historical injustice by recognising the rights of forest dwellers to land and resources.

Key Provisions of Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

Here are the key provisions of the act:

  • Adivasis or forest dwellers have the Right to Ownership of land used for housing.
  • They have the right to own and cultivate forest land for livelihood.
  • Also, they possess the right to access grazing grounds for livestock.
  • Moreover, forest dwellers have the right to collect and utilise forest products excluding timber (fruits, leaves, medicinal plants etc.)
  • Besides, forest dwellers must conserve forests and biodiversity.
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

As Political Science students you can also learn about: What is the 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution? 

Manual Scavenging 

Manual Scavenging refers to the act of removing human and animal waste from dry latrines and transporting it manually. It is performed with basic tools like brooms, and baskets. This act is primarily performed by Dalits. They often carry human excreta on the head, which is unhygienic and inhuman.

In today’s mechanised world, this menace persists. An estimated one lakh Dalit individuals continue this practice nationwide. They are employed in 26 lakh private and community dry latrines.

Life of Manual Scavengers

Here are some disturbing details about the lives of manual scavengers:

  • They face extreme filth and hazardous environments. Owing to the dangerous exposure, they succumb to severe infections, which affect various bodily systems.
  • They work at extremely low wages. Urban workers earn around ₹200 per day, with private work offering even less.
  • Moreover, despite the legal abolition of untouchability, manual scavengers are:
  1. Forced to live in separate settlements.
  2. Denied access to basic amenities like temples and public water facilities.

Let us look at the timeline of steps taken by the judiciary to eradicate manual scavenging in India.

The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993

This act aimed to outlaw manual scavenging and construction of dry latrines.

Public Interest Litigation filed in 2003

Safai Karamchari Andolan and others filed a PIL in the Supreme Court of India claiming that manual scavenging is still prevalent, including in government sectors like railways. They demanded the enforcement of fundamental rights against this inhuman practice.

After considering the PIL, the Supreme Court observed the following:

  • Increase in manual scavengers despite the 1993 Act.
  • It directed the government departments to:
  1. Verify the existence of manual scavenging within 6 months.
  2. Implement time-bound programs for the liberation and rehabilitation of identified manual scavengers.

The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013

This act was enacted on 6 December 2013 to strengthen the legal framework to eliminate manual scavenging. Here are the key provisions of the Act:

  • Legal measures acknowledge the gravity of the issue.
  • Despite existing laws, manual scavenging persists.
  • Stricter enforcement and proper rehabilitation plans are crucial for eradication.
NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes: Legal efforts to eradicate manual scavenging
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes

Lastly, in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Confronting Marginalisation Notes, we will learn about key definitions in the lesson:

  • Assertive: Being assertive means confidently expressing your thoughts and opinions.
  • Confront: Confronting someone or something means facing them directly or challenging them.
  • Dispossessed: When someone is dispossessed, it means they have lost ownership or authority over something they once had.
  • Ostracise: Ostracising someone means excluding them or banning them from a group or community.
  • Morally reprehensible: Something that is morally reprehensible is an action that goes against the values and principles that society believes in, and is considered extremely wrong and unacceptable.
  • Policy: A policy is a plan or set of rules that guides actions or decisions in the future. This could be a government policy or rules set by other institutions like schools or companies.
Source: Magnet Brains
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Q1. Are NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 ‘Confronting Marginalisation’ Notes beneficial for government exams?

Ans: Yes. UPSC CSE, CLAT, and PSC aspirants can refer to these NCERT Notes by Leverage Edu.

Q2. Does NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Notes include definitions?

Ans: Yes. You will get all the important definitions in these notes.

Q3. Where can download NCERT Class 8 Civics chapters?

Ans: You can download it from the official NCERT website.

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Civics.

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