NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 ‘Parliament and the Making of Laws’ Notes (Free PDF)

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NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws notes educate us about the basics of Indian Democracy, the structure of the Indian Parliament, and the role of the Indian Parliament. Also, we get to know about the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and the Prime Minister of India. Awareness of these aspects of Indian democracy and governance is essential for responsible citizens of the nation as it helps them keep the government in check and establish the rule of the people. To learn more about these topics go through all the sections of the blog. Furthermore, you can download the notes to revise before the examination. Keep learning!!

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Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes

Before we explore key concepts and theories in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws notes, it is important to understand the basics of Indian Democracy. Let us learn a few aspects of the largest democracy in the world. 

In India, we take pride in our democratic system, which focuses on citizen participation in decision-making and ensures that the government operates with the consent of its people. These principles are fundamental to our democracy and are embodied in institutions such as Parliament. This chapter will explore how Parliament facilitates the involvement of Indian citizens in decision-making processes and oversight of the government, thereby serving as a significant symbol of Indian democracy and a fundamental aspect of the Constitution.

Also Read: Essay on Indian Democracy in 100 and 200 Words for School Students in English

Democracy is founded on the principle of consent, where the people’s participation, approval, and desire are crucial. The decision to establish a democratic government rests with the people, who also determine its functioning. Consent in democracy is primarily expressed through elections, where people choose their representatives to form the government. 

The elected representatives, collectively forming the Parliament, serve as a mechanism for people to control and guide the government. The Parliament, composed of elected representatives, exercises oversight and direction over the government, reflecting the will of the people.

Thus, through the election process, citizens not only form the government but also retain the authority to hold it accountable.

Also Read: Essay on Democracy in 100, 300 and 500 Words

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes: Structure of the Indian Parliament

The Parliament of India comprises three main components: the President, the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha or the House of the People consists of members who form the central government after general elections. Here are some essential details:

  • After the Lok Sabha elections, the Parliament compiles a list detailing the number of Members of Parliament (MPs) belonging to each political party.
  • A political party aiming to form the government must secure a majority of elected MPs.
  • The majority party requires at least 272 members as the total number of Lok Sabha seats is 545 (543 elected members + 2 Anglo-Indian nominated members).
  • The Opposition in Parliament consists of all political parties not affiliated with the majority party or coalition. The largest party within the Opposition is designated as the Opposition party, representing the primary non-governmental voice within Parliament.

Prime Minister of India 

The Prime Minister of India serves as the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Prime Minister selects ministers from among the MPs belonging to their party to form the Union Government of India. These ministers are tasked with working alongside the Prime Minister to execute governmental decisions and policies.

Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha or the Council of State comprises of members elected through indirect elections and selected by the President of India. Here are the key details:

  • The Rajya Sabha serves as the representative body for the states of India within the Parliament.
  • It holds the authority to initiate legislation, and any bill must pass through the Rajya Sabha to become law.
  • The Rajya Sabha plays a crucial role in reviewing and, if necessary, amending laws proposed by the Lok Sabha.
  • Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states.
  • There are a total of 233 members elected by state legislatures, along with 12 members nominated by the President.

Also Read: Essay on Politics in 500 Words

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes: Parliament of India

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes: Question Hour

Question Hour is a significant aspect of the parliamentary proceedings. It refers to the period at the beginning of a parliamentary session during which MPs have the opportunity to pose questions to the government. This mechanism allows MPs to gather information about the functioning of the government, address any shortcomings, and convey the opinions of their constituents.

Advantages of Question Hour

Here are the key advantages of the Question Hour:

  • It serves as a means through which the Parliament exercises its control over the executive branch. 
  • It provides a platform for MPs to hold the government accountable, highlight deficiencies in policies or programs, and represent the interests of the public.
  • Also, it promotes transparency and accountability in government operations by enabling MPs to scrutinise their actions and decisions of the government. 
  • It is one of the important ways to control, guide, and inform the government. 

Also Read: One Nation One Election Essay in 500+ Words

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes: Role of the Parliament in India

The Parliament holds significant powers in the political system as it represents the people. Elections for Parliament follow a similar process to those for state legislatures. For the Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament, members are elected every five years. Here are some details of the Lok Sabha elections:

  • The country is divided into multiple constituencies, each responsible for electing one representative to Parliament.
  • Candidates contesting elections usually represent various political parties.
  • Successful candidates become Members of Parliament (MPs) upon election.
  • MPs collectively form the Parliament, where they participate in legislative decision-making and governance.

After the announcement of elections results, the parliament takes on the following duties: 

  1. To Select the National Government
  2. To Control, Guide, and Inform the Government

Also Read: Study Notes on the Functions of the Parliament

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes: Legislative Power of the Parliament

The Parliament is the legislative body of the country as it makes laws based on the necessity of different societal issues. 

To help you understand the legislative power of the Parliament of India, NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws has tried to explain the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005. 

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

Here is how the Act came into force. 

  • The grounds for the Act were laid down in the 1990s. Women from different social and economic backgrounds demanded a new civil law to protect them from physical violence in a shared household and relief from the toxic environment.
  • In 1999, the Lawyers Collective, comprising lawyers, law students, and activists, spearheaded the drafting of the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill following extensive consultations across the nation. This draft legislation was widely distributed for feedback and input.
  • Suggestions for the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill were:
  1. Physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and economic abuse must be classified as Domestic Violence.
  2. The law must include all women residing in a shared domestic space. Further, they must be protected from being ousted from the shared space or household.
  3. Victims of domestic violence must be granted monetary relief.
  • The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill was introduced in the Indian Parliament in 2002. However, it did not contain the demands/suggestions of the common people. Therefore, the Lawyers Collective and the National Commission for Women (NCW) opposed the Bill and called a press conference.
  • Women’s organisations including the National Commission for Women submitted their suggestions to the Bill before the Parliamentary Standing Committee. Their suggestions included changes in the definition of Domestic Violence and demand for temporary custody of children.
  • In December 2002, the Standing Committee presented its recommendations to the Rajya Sabha, which were subsequently tabled in the Lok Sabha. The Committee’s report largely endorsed the requests put forth by women’s groups. Subsequently, a revised bill was reintroduced in Parliament in 2005. Following approval from both houses of Parliament, the bill was forwarded to the President for his assent. Consequently, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act was enacted in 2006.

Also Read: Unicameral and Bicameral Legislature: Meaning, Characteristics, Differences

Unpopular and Controversial Laws in India

The Parliament can enact laws that are legally valid but unpopular due to perceived unfairness or harm in their intention. In a democracy, citizens can express their discontent with repressive laws through various means such as public meetings, media coverage, and newspaper articles. Public pressure on Parliament to change unpopular laws can arise when a significant number of people oppose them.

For example

Municipal laws often criminalize activities like hawking and street vending, which are vital for livelihoods despite ensuring public space accessibility. Conflicts arise when laws favour one group while disregarding the interests of others, leading to controversy. Citizens dissatisfied with unfair laws have the option to approach the court for resolution. The court possesses the authority to amend or nullify laws that violate the Constitution of India.

Also Read: Representation of People’s Act

Source: Only IAS Foundation
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Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws

Lastly, we have important definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws notes for you. Understanding these will help you analyse the chapter effectively and efficiently. 

  • Approval:  Giving consent and showing favour towards something, including both formal consent from elected representatives in Parliament and maintaining trust from the people.
  • Coalition: A temporary union of groups or parties, typically formed after elections when no single party has gained enough seats to form a clear majority.
  • Criticise: To express disapproval or find fault with someone or something, particularly in the context of citizens identifying flaws in governmental functioning.
  • Evolution: The gradual development from a simpler to a more complex form, as seen in the progression of protecting women against domestic violence from an urgent need for an enforceable law nationwide.
  • Sedition: Acts or speech that the government perceives as encouraging resistance or rebellion, often leading to arrests without concrete evidence, as historically exemplified by the broad interpretation and abuse of the Sedition Act of 1870.
  • Repressive: Severe control aimed at stifling natural development or expression, particularly through laws that curtail Fundamental Rights like freedom of speech and assembly.
  • Unresolved: Situations lacking easy solutions to problems.
Chapter 1: The Indian Constitution 
Chapter 2: Understanding Secularism
Chapter 3: Parliament and the Making of Laws Notes
Chapter 4: Judiciary
Chapter 5: Understanding Marginalisation
Chapter 6: Confronting Marginalisation
Chapter 7: Public Facilities 
Chapter 8: Law and Social Justice
Here’s How the President is Elected!What is Democracy? Structure, Types, Countries
Anti Defection Law (10th Schedule): Role of Speaker, RulesThe Four Pillars of Democracy: Notes
What is Representative Democracy?Media: The Fourth Pillar of Democracy
What are Fundamental Duties?What are the Fundamental Rights and Duties?
Salient Features of Indian ConstitutionImportant Articles in Indian Constitution Explained


Q1. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws notes?

Ans: You can download it from the NCERT study material section of the School Education part of Leverage Edu.

Q2. Where can I download Class 8 Civics Chapter 3 Parliament and the Making of Laws?

Ans:  You can download it from

Q3. What are the three components of the Parliament?

Ans: The Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha, The Rajya Sabha, and the President.

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