Essay on Child Labour in 1000 Words for Students

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Essay on Child Labour

Essay on Child Labour: A study called ‘Campaign Against Child Labour‘ revealed that around 12.67 million child labourers exist in India. Child labour refers to the forceful employment of children at shops, domestic and hazardous places like factories and mines. Child labour exploits children for their basic childhood rights and affects their physical and mental growth. According to the International Labour Organization, the minimum age to work is 15 years. However, some countries have set the minimum working age at 14 years.

In India, the Ministry of Labour & Employment is responsible for protecting children’s rights. The Ministry launched the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) scheme for the rehabilitation of child labourers.

Major Child Labour Causes

Poverty, unemployment, lack of access to quality education, lack of awareness, etc are some of the common causes of child labour. Understanding all the causes of child labour is very important to eradicating its practice.

Poverty and Unemployment

Poverty and unemployment are the primary causes of child labour. Families living in extreme poverty force their children to work and meet basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. On top of this, employees take advantage of their poverty and pay them low wages.

Lack of Access to Education

Children belonging to poor families have limited access to education due to inadequate infrastructure, insufficient resources and social discrimination. Due to this reason, children who are supposed to go to school are pushed towards labour instead of attending school.

“The Best Way to Make Children Good is to Make Them Happy”Oscar Wilde

Lack of Enforcement Laws

A lot of countries do not have strict laws against child labour. Unethical employers are not afraid because the laws against child labour are not strict. Child labour is persistent because employees do not fear the law. In some cases, insufficient coordination among government agencies, NGOs, and international organizations leads to gaps in the enforcement of child labour laws.

Debt Bondage

Debt bondage or bonded labour is a type of child labour where individuals are forced to work to repay a debt or a family loan. These impoverished people have no other option but to work as bonded labourers in domestic places. 

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Ignorance and Lack of Awareness

The lack of awareness becomes an important cause of child labour, as these people have no idea about the long-term consequences of child labour. 

essay on child labour

Impacts on Children

Child labour can have serious impacts on a child’s physical and mental growth. However, the impacts of child labour are not limited to children only. 

Education Deprivation

Child labour deprives children of their right to education. In India, the Right to Education is a basic Fundamental Right and is also a Fundamental Duty. The Indian Constitution says that any person, who is a parent or a guardian, must provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the ages of six and fourteen years.

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Impact on Physical Health

Children who consistently work in dangerous or tough conditions sometimes get hurt, and sick, and can face long-term health issues. Children working in factories and mines are exposed to harmful chemicals, pollutants and dust. Prolonged exposure can lead to respiratory problems, skin disorders, and other health issues.

Impact on Mental and Emotional Health

Working for long hours in hazardous conditions is a deadly combination. These conditions can contribute to high levels of stress and anxiety, affecting the mental well-being of children. In addition to this, these children are denied the right to education, which limits their cognitive development and prospects.

Cycle of Poverty

Children are supposed to go to school and study, not work in factories or as domestic helpers. Child labour perpetuates the cycle of poverty. The cycle of poverty can only end if child labour ends. 

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What is the Global Perspective?

According to UNICEF, 1 out of 10 children are subjected to child labour worldwide and some are forced into hazardous work through trafficking. Child labour is a complex issue with its regional challenges. In 2020, around 16 crore children in the world were subjected to child labour. 

International organisations like the ILO, UNICEF, etc. are constantly fighting against children. They collaborate with global governments, NGOs, and private organisations and discuss the root causes of child labour, such as poverty, lack of access to education, cultural norms, armed conflict, and economic pressures. It is very important to address these factors for effective solutions.

Child Labour in India

In India, there are five major sectors where child labour is most prevalent. These sectors are:

  • Agriculture – The largest number of children are employed in the agricultural sector and related activities. Children in rural areas are employed in sugarcane, wheat and rice farms, where they are forced to work for long hours in scorching heat.
  • Brick Kilns – For ages, the brick kiln industry has been employing children at low wages. In several brick kilns, children work for long hours with their parents and are exposed to toxic fumes and pollutants.
  • Garment Industry – The Indian garment industry constitutes a large portion of child labour. Most of the Indian garment industries are managed by local start-ups, who hire children at low wages to preserve their profit margin.
  • Fireworks – Firework factory owners hire a significant number of children at low wages. Children working in fireworks factories work in cramped conditions and are exposed to toxic fumes and hazardous chemicals, which hampers their physical and mental health.
  • Unorganised Sectors – The unorganised sector includes local dhabas, food and tea stalls, vegetable and fruit vendors, etc. These people employ children as helpers and servants. 

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Steps to Eradicate Child Labour

  • Raising awareness about child labour can be the first step to eradicating child labour. If people, especially parents, are aware of the consequences of child labour, they might not force their children to work in hazardous places. 
  • Traffickers prey on vulnerable children, especially those who come from poor families and are not aware of child labour. Awareness ensures growth and opportunities in education, employment and career.
  • There is an urgent need for stringent laws against child labour. Strict laws against child labour can bring long-lasting social changes. In India, child labour is a crime. According to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act of 1986, children below the age are prohibited from working. However, this law is not strictly enforced.
  • Today, various NGOs are working in collaboration with local and state governments to implement pro-child laws.
  • Education must be made compulsory and accessible to all. In India, the Right to Education is a fundamental right. Yet, a lot of children are deprived of this basic constitutional right. Strict laws and easy access to education can bring a big change, ending child labour in the country.

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10 Lines to Add in Child Labour Essay

Here are 10 lines on child labour. Feel free to add them to your child labour essay or similar topics.

  1. Child labour deprives children of their right to a proper childhood.
  2. It involves children working in harmful environments. 
  3. It Disrupts their physical and mental well-being.
  4. Poverty is a major factor pushing children into the workforce at an early age.
  5. Lack of access to education often perpetuates the cycle of child labour.
  6. Children engaged in labour are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.
  7. Hazardous conditions in factories and mines pose serious health risks to working children.
  8. Child labour hinders the development of necessary skills and knowledge for the future.
  9. Long working hours and limited leisure time impact a child’s social and emotional growth.
  10. Addressing the root causes, such as poverty and lack of education, is crucial in the fight against child labour.
Source: VICE Asia


Q.1. What is a short essay on child labour?

Ans: Child labour refers to the practice of employing young children in hazardous places like factories and mines. Child labour exploits children for their basic childhood rights and hampers their physical and mental growth. According to the International Labour Organization, the minimum age for work is 15 years. However, some countries have set the minimum working age at 14 years.

Q.2. What are the causes of child labour?

Ans: Poverty and Unemployment, Lack of Access to Education, Law of Enforcement Laws, Debt Bondage, etc. are some of the primary causes of child labour.

Q.3. Is child labour banned in India?

Ans: Child labour is banned in India. According to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, of 1986, no child below 14 years of age is allowed to work in hazardous or domestic places, like factories, mines or shops.

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