NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes (Free PDF)

9 minute read
NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities notes are prepared for school students and government exam aspirants. The notes contain accurate information, as mentioned in the NCERT Class 8 Civics textbook to maintain authenticity. Also, this study material adheres to the latest CBSE curriculum. Therefore, you can use these to understand the lesson effectively. 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities notes talk about how the government provides public facilities and enforces laws for markets and working conditions. It helps students understand how this connects to our Fundamental Rights. Chapter 7 focuses on water as an example to explain public facilities. Students need to grasp why the government is responsible for ensuring everyone has access to things like water equally. Even though access to water may differ now, it should not stop the government from providing fair access to public facilities.

Also Read: What is the Full Form of PWD?

A Study of Water Access in Chennai

Disparities exist in the availability of water among different socio-economic groups within Chennai. While affluent areas like Anna Nagar enjoy continuous water supply and easy access to additional water through tankers, poorer areas like slums face severe shortages and limited access to clean water.

Disparities in Access to Water

Each area of Chennai is segregated into affluent areas, middle-income areas, and lower-income areas. Based on their economic status, each area has a different story about the quality and quantity of water accessible to the residents. 

Affluent Areas:

Affluent areas like Anna Nagar have consistent tap water supply and lush greenery maintained through regular watering. Residents in these areas have connections with senior officials to arrange water tankers during shortages, highlighting a privilege based on social connections.

Middle-Income Areas:

Middle-income areas like Mylapore face water shortages with municipal supply once every two days. Due to its brackish nature, residents rely on borewell water for non-potable uses and purchase water from tankers for other purposes. Investment in water purification systems for drinking water reflects a proactive approach to address water quality concerns.

Lower-Income Areas:

Lower-income areas like the slums in Saidapet have limited access to water resources. Residents face challenges such as shared tap connections and limited water availability, leading to competition and waiting times for access. Dependence on water tankers increases during periods of scarcity, exacerbating the challenges these communities face.

Impacts on Livelihoods and Quality of Life

  • Water scarcity affects livelihoods and quality of life, as seen in Siva’s inability to bring his family to Chennai due to water shortages.
  • Padma’s situation highlights the daily struggles faced by those living in slums, where access to basic amenities like water is limited, impacting hygiene and health outcomes.
  • The economic burden of water scarcity is evident, with residents spending significant amounts on purchasing water from tankers, as seen in Subramanian’s case.
  • The disparity in access to water resources also reflects broader socio-economic inequalities within the city.

Also Read: Essay on Water Conservation

Water as Part of the Fundamental Right to Life

As part of NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes, let us explore Water as Part of the Fundamental Right to Life

Water is a fundamental right and everyone deserves access to safe drinking water. In India, legal mechanisms exist to enforce this right.

Right to Water in India

  • Water as a Necessity: Safe drinking water is crucial for health and prevents water-borne diseases prevalent in India.
  • Right to Water as Part of Right to Life: The Indian Constitution (Article 21: Protection of life and personal liberty) guarantees the Right to Life, which includes access to sufficient, affordable safe drinking water for everyone.
  • Legal Recognition: Several court judgements by High Courts and the Supreme Court of India have upheld the right to safe drinking water as a fundamental right.

Case Study

  • A villager in Mahbubnagar district (Andhra Pradesh) filed a case due to water contamination by a textile factory.
  • The High Court (2007) recognised the Right to Water and ordered the district collector to provide 25 litres of safe water per person in the village.

UN Definition of Right to Water (2002)

As per the United Nations Organisation (UNO), the Right to Water entitles each person to the following rights for personal and domestic use:

  • Sufficient water
  • Safe water
  • Affordable water
  • Physically accessible water

Also Read: 15 World Water Day Facts for Students

Public Facilities in India

Essential services such as healthcare, sanitation, electricity, public transport, schools, colleges, etc provided by the government for the benefit of all citizens are known as public facilities. These facilities are crucial for a nation’s development and citizen well-being. Thus, effective management and distribution of these facilities are essential.

Importance of Public Facilities

Here is how public facilities are essential for the development of a nation and the welfare of the citizens:

  • Shared Benefits: Once provided, a public facility can improve the lives of many people. (e.g., a school educates many children, electricity benefits various activities).
  • Social and Economic Development: Public facilities contribute to a community’s well-being and economic opportunities. (e.g., irrigation with electricity helps farmers, and schools create a skilled workforce).

Government’s Role in Public Facilities

The Constitution guarantees the Right to Life, which includes access to basic needs, which includes public facilities. These facilities are essential for fulfilling this right for all citizens. Thus, the government has the responsibility to ensure everyone has access to these vital services. The government has the responsibility to balance affordability and quality of public services, which often becomes a challenge for the government. 

Why the Government Provides Public Facilities?

  • Essential for Basic Needs: Public facilities like sanitation, clean water, and healthcare are crucial for a decent life.
  • Profit vs. Public Good: Private companies focus on profit, but public facilities often have no direct profit motive (e.g., cleaning drains).
  • Universal Access: The government ensures everyone has access to these facilities, regardless of income. (e.g., free public schools vs. expensive private schools).

Where Does the Government Get Money for Public Facilities?

The annual budget presented in Parliament outlines government spending for the past and coming years. It also details how the government plans to raise revenue for these expenses. Here are some ways in which the government gets money for public facilities:

  •  The primary source of government revenue comes from taxes collected from citizens.
  •  The government may charge a user fee for some public facilities, like water, to partially recover costs. These fees are usually set at an affordable rate for basic usage.
  • Example: Supplying water involves pumping, transportation, treatment, and waste management. The government funds these activities through taxes and user charges for water consumption.

Private Sector Involvement in Public Facilities

Private companies might be involved in some public facilities like hospitals and schools in urban areas. However, affordability becomes an issue, potentially excluding low-income groups.

Also Read: What is the Full Form of PPP?

Unequal Water Distribution in Chennai

Despite being a public facility, the water supply in Chennai faces a significant shortage. Municipal water fulfils only around half the city’s needs on average. Areas closer to water storage points receive a more regular supply compared to distant colonies.

Impact on Different Socio-economic Groups

Here is how unequal distribution of water distribution affects different socio-economic groups:

  • The burden of water scarcity falls heavily on the poor.
  • The middle class can resort to private solutions like borewells, water tankers, or bottled water during shortages.

Limited Access to Safe Drinking Water

Also, unequal distribution limits access to safe drinking water in different parts and classes of Chennai. Here is how:

  • Affordability determines access to safe drinking water.
  • Wealthier residents have options like bottled water and purifiers, ensuring safe water consumption.
  • The poor lack these options, putting their health at risk.

Exploitation of Water Resources by Private Companies in Chennai

Private companies are buying water from villages near towns in Chennai like Karungizhi, Mamandur, and Palut to address the water shortage in the city. This water extraction is done through tankers from sources like agriculture and drinking water supplies. This process impacts the water resources in the following ways:

  • A significant drop in groundwater levels in these villages
  • Villagers’ access to clean drinking water
  • Threat to the livelihood of farmers dependent on groundwater
  • Social conflicts due to water disputes

Also Read: Best Water Saving Techniques Speech

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes: Public Water Supply in Porto Alegre, Brazil (Case Study)

Porto Alegre has a significantly lower infant mortality rate compared to other cities globally, owing to universal access to safe water provided by the public water department. 

Here are some key points related to water supply in Porto Alegre:

  • The city achieved universal access to safe water.
  • The administration charges a low average water price with a half-rate subsidy for the poor.
  • Also, profits from the water supply chain are reinvested in improving water supply infrastructure.
  • They have been able to achieve water security due to public participation in decision-making. Public meetings are organised for residents to hear department plans and vote on priorities.

Also Read: What are Different Types of Water Pollution?

Water Scarcity and Privatisation in India

Water shortage is a common problem in Indian cities. Private companies are selling water for profit, filling the gap left by municipal supply. Huge inequalities exist between the haves and have-nots. For instance, slum dwellers receive a fraction of the water used in luxury hotels. Some advocate for private companies to take over the water supply due to government inefficiency.

Arguments Against Privatisation of Water

  • Globally, water supply is mostly a government function. Public water systems can achieve universal access, which privatisation cannot.
  • Privatisation can lead to unaffordable water prices and social unrest, for example Bolivia. Even in India, some government water departments have privatised water supplies like in Delhi and Mumbai. 

Role of Government in the Water Needs of the People

The state governments work toward:

  • Ensuring water scarcity
  • Balancing affordability and sustainability
  • Learning from successful public water management models

Also Read: Essay on Rainwater Harvesting: Water Saving Techniques

Sanitation in India and the Role of Sulabh

Here are some key facts and points about sanitation in India and the role of Sulabh, which are essential part of NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes:

  • Sanitation coverage in India is significantly lower than access to drinking water (87% vs. 53% as of 2011).
  • The poorest communities, both rural and urban, lack proper sanitation facilities, leading to an increased risk of waterborne diseases.
  • Sulabh, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) founded in 1970, addresses sanitation issues faced by low-caste and low-income people in India.
  • Sulabh has constructed over 8,500 community toilet blocks and 1.5 million household toilets, providing sanitation access to approximately 20 million people. These facilities primarily serve the poor working class.
  • Sulabh collaborates with municipalities or local authorities to construct toilet blocks. Funding often comes from the government, with local authorities providing land.
  • Maintenance costs are managed in different ways, including user charges (e.g., INR 2 per use in cities) to ensure affordability.
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes

Lastly, the NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Public Facilities notes have important definitions in the lesson for you:

  • Sanitation: Sanitation involves creating safe ways to dispose of human waste, like building toilets and sewer systems, and treating wastewater to prevent contamination.
  • Company: A company is a type of business formed by individuals or the government. Private companies, like Tata Steel, are owned by individuals or groups, while government-run companies, like Indian Oil, are owned and operated by the government.
  • Universal access: Universal access means that everyone has physical access to something, like clean water from a tap, and can afford it. For example, if water is provided at a low cost or for free, everyone can afford it.
  • Basic needs: Basic needs are the fundamental requirements for survival, including food, water, shelter, sanitation, healthcare, and education.
Speech on Make Public Transport Free: 2 Minutes SpeechNCERT Solutions and Notes for Class 6 Civics Chapter 7: Rural Livelihoods
Write a Letter to Municipal Corporation About Stray DogsThe Directive Principles of State Policy
Write a Letter to the Superintendent of Police About the Nuisance of LoudspeakerWrite a Letter to the Editor of a Newspaper About Frequent Breakdown of Electricity in Your Locality
Write A Letter To Your Friend Advising Him To Visit Public LibraryWrite a Letter to the Editor of a Local Newspaper About the Cleanliness of your City


Q1. Are NCERT Class 8 Chapter 7 Public Facilities Notes reliable for UPSC CSE?

Ans: Yes. These notes are useful for UPSC CSE aspirants as well. 

Q2. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Chapter 7?

Ans: You can download NCERT chapters from the official website of NCERT.

Q3. Are NCERT Notes by Leverage Edu good for school students?

Ans: Yes. NCERT Notes by Leverage Edu are good for school students because these are prepared by subject experts and adhere to the latest CBSE guidelines. 

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Civics.

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *