NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes (Free PDF)

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NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes

NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation notes are prepared by subject experts who are well versed with the CBSE guidelines. As you proceed through, you will get an introduction to the chapter followed by a summary of all the sections of the lesson. You can also download the notes PDF to revise before school examinations or competitive exams in India

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes

In NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes, we will discuss marginalization, which is the feeling of being excluded from the mainstream. We will learn how marginalised communities face exclusion due to language, religion, social status, or poverty. This lack of inclusion leads to limited access to resources and opportunities, creating a cycle of disadvantage. Also, the notes introduce the concept of preparing for a discussion of two marginalised communities in India- Adivasis and Minorities. 

Also Read: What is the Full Form of ST?

Who are Adivasis?

Adivasi means “original inhabitants” and refers to indigenous communities of India. Around 8% of the Indian population is Adivasis. They reside in different parts of India, which are as follows:

  • Central India (Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha)
  • Western India (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan)
  • Eastern India (Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal)
  • North-Eastern states (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura)

Must Read: Birsa Munda: Life and his Ulgulan Movement

Cultural Practices of Adivasis

Adivasi communities maintain unique cultural traditions, including distinct art, music, dance forms, and oral literature. Many Adivasi groups practice subsistence agriculture and have a deep understanding of ecological systems, owing to their close connection with forests.

Also Read: Assam Bihu Celebration: History, Dance Form, Significance

Religious Beliefs and Practices of Adivasis

Adivasis adhere to diverse tribal religions, distinct from major religions like Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Here are some key elements of religious beliefs and practices of Adivasis:

  • They often engage in worship of ancestors, village spirits, and nature deities, with sacred groves and household altars serving as focal points.
  • Adivasi religions have historically interacted with and influenced surrounding religious traditions, such as the Jagannath cult in Odisha and Tantric traditions in Bengal and Assam.
  • Also, many Adivasi communities during the 19th century adopted Christianity contributing to the religious diversity among the tribal people.

Also Read: International Day of World’s Indigenous Peoples

Linguistic Heritage of Adivasis

The preservation and promotion of Adivasi languages are crucial for maintaining their cultural identity and heritage as most of the languages are as old as Sanskrit. At present, Santhali is the most spoken Adivasi language with a growing online presence.

Also Read: Tribes of India: The Ancient People & Their Culture

Adivasis and Stereotyping

Adivasi communities in India are often misrepresented and stereotyped. In mainstream media, school functions, and official events, Adivasis are often depicted in stereotypical ways, emphasising colourful costumes, traditional headgear, and folk dances. Such portrayals reinforce narrow and distorted perceptions of Adivasi culture, reducing their rich diversity to superficial stereotypes.

How to Address Stereotyping of Adivasis?

Here are some ways in which government authorities, schools, business organisations, and individuals can stop stereotyping of Adivasis:

  • Encourage diverse representations of Adivasi culture that reflect their contemporary realities, achievements, and contributions to society.
  • Promote education and awareness programs that challenge stereotypes and foster empathy and understanding towards Adivasi communities.

Also Read: Tribal Movement in India- Causes and Major Revolts

Adivasis and Development

Historically, Adivasis lived in and depended on forests for their survival. Forests provided them with food, resources (like timber and medicinal plants), and a way of life. Adivasis had control over these forests until the mid-19th century.

Contemporary Challenges for Adivasis

Over the past 200 years, Adivasis have been forced into marginalised roles due to economic changes, forest policies, and political pressure. They have lost control and direct access to forest territories, leading to displacement and loss of livelihoods.

Here are some ways in which Adivasis are displaced from their habitat:

  • Forest lands have been cleared for timber, agriculture, and industry, leading to Adivasi displacement.
  • Mining projects and industrialisation often encroach on Adivasi lands without proper procedures.
  • Many Adivasis have been displaced due to dam projects and militarisation in certain regions.

Impact of Displacement on Adivasis

Here is how displacement impacts the lives of Adivasis:

  • Displacement results in loss of livelihoods, traditional customs, and a way of life.
  • Adivasis often migrate to cities for low-wage jobs, leading to poverty and deprivation.
  • Malnutrition and low literacy rates are prevalent among tribal communities.
  • Destruction of Adivasi lands and displacement lead to a cycle of poverty and deprivation.

Also Read: Community Certificate: Purpose, Eligibility, How to Get

Minorities and Marginalisation

The Constitution of India offers special protections to religious and linguistic minorities under Article 29, as a Fundamental Right. Here are the key reasons why these rights are guaranteed to the marginalised sections of Indian society:

  • Protecting Cultural Diversity: India is a land of rich cultural heritage with diverse religions and languages. Safeguards ensure that the majority culture doesn’t dominate and minority cultures can thrive.
  • Promoting Equality and Justice: Minorities might face discrimination in access to resources and power. Also, they may even feel insecure about their well-being. Safeguards aim to create a level playing field and ensure equal rights for all.
  • Preventing Marginalisation: The passage points out that being a smaller community can be a disadvantage. Safeguards protect minorities from being excluded or pushed to the sidelines.
  • Countering Potential Domination by the Majority: The document highlights that the majority’s influence can affect society and government. Safeguards prevent the majority from imposing its culture or beliefs on minorities.

Revise: NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 ‘Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)


Muslims (14.2% of the Indian population) are a marginalised community. As per the India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion, they have lower access to basic amenities such as pucca house ownership, and electricity access, as compared to Hindus, Christians, and Sikhs. 

Sachar Committee Report

In 2005, the Indian government established a high-level committee chaired by Justice Rajindar Sachar to examine the social, economic, and educational status of the Muslim community in India. 

Sachar Committee Report

Here are the key findings of the Sachar Committee Report:

  • The report highlighted the marginalized status of the Muslim community, comparable to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • It revealed disparities in education, employment, and socio-economic indicators between Muslims and other socio-religious communities.
  • Specifically, it noted that the average years of schooling for Muslim children aged 7-16 were lower compared to other communities, indicating educational disadvantage.

Recommendations of Sachar Committee

Here are some recommendations by the Sachar Committee:

  • It underscored the need for targeted interventions and policies to address the socio-economic disparities faced by the Muslim community.
  • Also, the committee likely recommended affirmative action measures, educational reforms, and economic empowerment initiatives to uplift the Muslim community.

Also Read: Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29 & 30)

Social Marginalisation of Muslims in India

Muslim customs and practices can differ from the mainstream, leading to stereotyping and discrimination. This social marginalization can cause:

  • Migration: Muslims may move away from areas where they experience prejudice.
  • Ghettoisation: Concentration of Muslim communities in specific areas.
  • Hatred and Violence: Prejudice can escalate to violence.
  • Economic Marginalisation: Social exclusion can limit opportunities for education and employment, furthering economic hardship.

How to Address Marginalisation?

Here are different ways government/s and individuals can address marginalisation:

  • Upholding Fundamental Rights is crucial for inclusivity.
  • Implementing laws and policies promoting equality can help dismantle discrimination.
  • Protecting diversity strengthens India’s uniqueness.
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8
Source: Magnet Brains

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes

Let us explore key definitions in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes here:

  • Displaced: This means when people are forced to leave their homes because of big projects like building dams or mining.
  • Hierarchy: A hierarchy is a system where people or things are arranged in order of importance, with those at the bottom having the least power. An example is the caste system, where Dalits are considered to be at the lowest level.
  • Ghettoisation: Ghettoisation is when a specific area is mostly inhabited by people from one particular community. This can happen for social, cultural, or economic reasons. Sometimes, fear or hostility can make a community stick together for safety. Communities that are ghettoised often have limited options to move out, which can make them feel isolated from the rest of society.
  • Mainstream: It refers to the dominant culture in a society, where most people follow the customs and practices of the dominant group. It also refers to the powerful or dominant group in a society.
  • Militarised: An area is militarised when there is a significant presence of armed forces.
  • Malnourished: This term describes a person who doesn’t get enough nutrition or food to stay healthy.
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Q1. Which are marginalised communities in India?

Ans: Adivasis, Dalits, and Muslims are marginalised communities in India.

Q2. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation Notes? 

Ans: You can download NCERT notes at Leverage Edu.

Q3. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation?

Ans: You can download NCERT chapters at

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Civics.

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