Notes on Lok Sabha

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Lok Sabha

The Indian parliament consists of the president,  Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.  Rajya Sabha is known as the upper house whereas the latter is known as the lower house. Being the lower house of the Parliament, it represents the house of people. It possesses its own speaker as well as members. These regulations are often important to read for those who are looking forward to qualifying scholastic for competitive exams. In this blog, we have devised simple and easy to learn short note on Lok Sabha.

Also Read:Important Amendment of the Indian Constitution

Note: Lok Sabha has been abbreviated as LS at some places throughout the blog.

Short Note on Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is known as the First Chamber of the Parliament that collectively represents the people of India as a whole. The universal adult suffrage elects its members and further, they are entitled to represent the mass. The total strength of LS is 552 members out of which 530 represent the states 20 presents the union territories and 2 members are nominated by the president from the Anglo Indian community. 

Currently, the strength of LS is 545 members, amongst which 530 represent all states, 13 represent union territories ,and the President of India nominates the remaining two.

Current Lok Sabha

The current Lok Sabha is the seventeenth Session that started from May 2019 with Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the leader. 

  • The Lok Sabha is composed of 543 members. 
  • The current Lok Sabha consists of 300 members of Bharatiya Janata Party, 51 members of Indian National Congress, 24 members of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and other members of different national level political parties. 
  • There are a total of 37political parties in the Lok Sabha

Must Read:Class 9 Social Science- What is Democracy?

Elections 

The members of Lok Sabha are known as the members of parliament that are selected from states and union territories or the experts belonging to particular expertise. After every 5 years, the tenure of LS gets dissolved and fresh general elections are organised to elect the members. As per the Indian Constitution, the universal adult franchise is being selected as the basis of elections to shortlist members for Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies.  Let us now understand how LS elections at each level are held-

Representation of States

Mentioned below is the process how members are selected from states-

  • From the territorial constituencies in the members of the state are directly elected.
  • The principle of Universal adult franchise is used as election principle.
  • Any individual belonging to the age of 18 years or above can vote.

Representation of Union Territories in LS

Here are the points how members are elected from union territories-

  • It is in the hands of Parliament to choose the members belonging to union territories in any manner they may like.
  • Instead of Universal adult franchise, the election principle used is direct elections.

Representation of Nominated Members in Lok Sabha:

The nominated members are chosen by the president of the country from the influential leaders who belong to the Anglo Indian community. 

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha

The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are composed under the Parliament of India, the head of the state. Lok Sabha is the lower house that has 543 members who are directly elected by the citizens of India. Every citizen of India above the age of 18 is part of the selection process or the general elections. The Rajya Sabha is the upper house that is a permanent body not subject to dissolution. One third of the members of Rajya Sabha retire every second year and are replaced by others. It consists of 250 members where 233 are elected from State and Union Territories and 12 of them are nominated by the president. 

Zero Hour In Lok Sabha

Zero Hour is the time that immediately follows the Question Hour. It starts at 12 noon and hence it is called the zero hour. In this time the members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance at that time.

Lok Sabha Is More Powerful Than Rajya Sabha

In a few ways, Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. 

  • Lok Sabha has the power to issue a Motion of No Confidence against the government. If passed, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers will resign collectively.
  • Money bills can only be introduced at the LS. If rajya Sabha does not reject the bill within 15 days or makes no action in the duration or the LS does not accept the changes by the Rajya Sabha, the bill passes.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing any Bill for Constitutional Amendment, and a motion for Impeachment of the President.

Short Note On Speaker Of Lok Sabha

Amongst all the elected members Of Lok Sabha,  the Speaker of the House is elected through voting. The Speaker chairs the House of LS and no proceeding in the House can take place without his or her presence. The first-ever speaker of LS was Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar who served the term for 1952- 1956  and passed away while serving the House.

Speaker of Lok Sabha Details

Mentioned below are some important pointers with respect to the speaker of Lok Sabha-

  • The date of election of the Speaker of Lok Sabha is decided by the President of India.
  • In case the Speaker wishes to resign, then, the letter of resignation has to be submitted to the Deputy Speaker.  
  • With a resolution being passed by a majority of LS members, the Speaker can be removed and a notice period of 14 days shall be granted.
  • Whenever special settings are being summoned by the President regarding the settlement of a deadlock, it is the Speaker who presides over such joint sittings.
  • The speaker gives the final judgement when it comes to deciding whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not.
  • The Speaker of LS cannot vote in the first instance, but his or her vote is considered in the situation of the time.
  • Balram Jakhar has been the longest-serving speaker of LS.

First Female Speaker Of Lok Sabha

The first female speaker of Lok Sabha is Meira Kumar. She is an Indian politician and a member of the Indian National Congress. She was the 15th Speaker of LS from 2009 to 2014. She was also the second woman to be nominated for the position of President of India.

The Speaker Of Lok Sabha Is Elected By

The Speaker of Lok Sabha is elected by voting in the house in the first meeting of Lok Sabhaafter the general elections. During this meeting, both Lok Sabha Speaker and Deputy Speakers are elected. The speaker serves a term of five years and there are no specific qualifications prescribed for the selection.

Deputy Speaker

In case of the absence of the speaker of the lower house, the Deputy Speaker takes over.  Let us understand his/her contribution in the house by going through the below-mentioned points-

  • Just as the speaker,the Deputy Speaker is also elected amongst the members of LS only.
  • The Speaker Of LS decides the date of election of deputy speaker.
  • The removal process of the deputy speaker of LS is the same as the speaker and he or she has to put the resignation to the speaker of the house.
  • The Deputy Speaker sits over the settings in the absence of the speaker.
  • The first-ever deputy speaker of LS was Madabhushi Ananthasyanam.

First Deputy Speaker Of Lok Sabha

The first Deputy Speaker of LS was Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar or M.A. Ayyangar. He went on to become a LS Speaker. He was also a Governor of Bihar.

Lok Sabha Constituencies

In total, there are 543 constituencies in India that collectively take part in the LS elections. The constituencies of LS is a hot topic in UPSC exams, SSC CGL exam, SSC stenographers exam and many other competitive assessments. Thus, we have devised a few important pointers related to this topic-

  • The smallest constituency (electors wise): Lakshwadeep
  • The smallest constituency (area wise): Chandni Chowk
  • The largest constituency (electors wise): Malkajgiri
  • The largest constituency (area wise):  Ladakh 

Vital Acts of Amendments 

Since the day of inception of the constitution of India, many changes have been taken place in the article explaining duties related to Lok Sabha. Tabulated below are some important amendments for the students preparing for the competitive exams- 

Amendments Changes Made
Second amendment act 1952 Readjusted the scale of representation in the Lok Sabha
23rd Amendment Act 1969 Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs, and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 1980)
31st Amendment Act 1972 Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545
41st Amendment Act 1976 -Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies on the basis of 1971 census till 2001-Raised the tenure of Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies from 5 to 6 years
44th Amendment Act 1978 -Restored the original term of the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies (i.e., 5 years)-Omitted the provisions which took away the power of the court to decide the election disputes of the Lok Sabha Speaker
45th Amendment Act 1980 Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the LS
51st Amendment Act 1984 Provided for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for STs in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram
61st Amendment Act 1989 Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the LS
62nd Amendment Act 1989
 
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha
79th Amendment Act 1999 Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the LS
84th Amendment Act 2001 Extended the ban on the readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha for another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026) with the same objective of encouraging population limiting measures
91st Amendment Act 2003 Article 75(1A): The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers, shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the LS
95th Amendment Act 2009 Article 334: Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha for a further period of ten years i.e., up to 2020

Questions on Lok Sabha in Competitive Exams

Now that we have fully understood this important concept,  it is now time to go to some questions that you may come across in your exam- 

  1. When was the LS house constituted for the very first time
  2. When did the first session of LS take place?
  3. Till date how many general elections have been organised for Loksabha?
  4. Who is the leader of Lok Sabha?
  5. What is the role of lower house when it comes to introducing a money bill?
  6. What is the minimum qualification of a Lowe House member?
  7. When was NOTA introduced in LS?
  8. Who was the first speaker of Lok Sabha?
  9. Who was the first deputy speaker of Lok Sabha?
  10. What is the strength of LS prescribed by the Indian Constitution?
  11. Who is the proceeding officer of LS?
  12. What is the term of LS?
  13. Who presides over the sittings in the absence of the speaker?
  14. What is the term of office of the speaker?
  15. Who decides over the Lower House in the absence of the speaker and deputy speaker?

Thus, we hope that through our detailed and short note on Lok Sabha we have helped you in understanding this crucial topic for your exams. To get expert counselling for all your career-related queries, get in touch with our experts at Leverage Edu and they will assist you in resolving them. Book your free e-meeting with us today! 

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