NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation (Free PDF)

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NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation is prepared by subject experts who have a thorough knowledge of the CBSE guidelines. You can use the answers to complete the chapter and score excellent marks in your Class 8 Social Science exam. 

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Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Questions and Answers in NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5: Understanding Marginalisation

In this part of NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation, we have important questions and answers scattered throughout the lesson. 

Questions on Page No. 65

Ques 1. Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalised.

Ans: Here are three reasons why groups may be marginalised:

  • They practice distinct rituals and follow different cultural traditions.
  • They speak a different language.
  • They practice a religion other than the majority.

Ques 2. Why was Dadu forced to leave his village in Odisha?

Ans: Dadu was forced to leave his village in Odisha because industrialists took over his family‚Äôs land. The industrialists claimed that they had found iron ores beneath the land so they planned to set up factories in the area. They bought the land from the Adivasis of Odisha at a very low price, owing to which the inhabitants of the area had to move to different cities in search of employment. 

Ques 3. Answer the following questions:

(i) In your own city or village, who would you think are the marginalised groups? Discuss.

(ii) What languages do they speak?

(iii) Do they live close to the forest?

(iv) Do they migrate to other regions looking for work?

Ans: Do it yourself

Questions on Page No. 67

Ques 1. What metals are important in present-day India? Why? Where do they come from? Are there Adivasi populations there?

Ans: The following metals are important in present-day India:

  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Bauxite
  • Lead
  • Zinc
  • Gold

Here is the significance of some of the important metals:

IronA crucial component in steel production, forming the backbone of infrastructure and construction.
BauxiteIt is the raw material for aluminium, which is vital in various industries like transportation and packaging.
CopperUsed extensively in electrical wiring, construction, and renewable energy sectors.

Important metals are found in the following regions:

Eastern India (Chhota Nagpur Plateau)Iron, Manganese, Mica, and Bauxite
Central IndiaManganese, Copper
Southern IndiaIron, Lignite

Yes. Adivasi communities, indigenous people of India, reside in several areas with mineral resources.

Ques 2. List five products that you use at home that come from the forest.

Ans: Here are the five products at home that come from the forest:

  • Wooden tables
  • Tissue paper
  • Shoelaces
  • Medicines
  • Rubber bands

Ques 3. By whom were the following demands being made on forest land?

  • timber for construction of houses and railways
  • forest land for mining
  • forest land for agriculture by non-tribal people
  • reserved by government as wildlife parks

In what ways would this affect tribal people?

Ans: These demands would significantly disrupt the lives of tribal people in the following ways:

  • Loss of livelihood: Timber removal limits resources for building, tools, and traditional practices.
  • Displacement: Mining and large-scale agriculture force them off ancestral lands, impacting their way of life and cultural practices.
  • Restricted access: Wildlife parks limit hunting, gathering, and access to resources crucial for their survival.
  • Reduced food security: Traditional food sources and hunting grounds become inaccessible.
  • Cultural erosion: Loss of land and resources hinders traditional practices and connection to their heritage.

Ques 4. What do you think this poem is trying to convey?

From the 1830s onwards, Adivasis from Jharkhand and adjoining areas moved in very large numbers to various plantations in India and the world РMauritius, the Caribbean and even Australia. India’s tea industry became possible with their labour in Assam. Today, there are 70 lakh Adivasis in Assam alone. The story of this migration is full of extreme hardship, torture, heartbreak and death. For example, in the nineteenth century alone five lakh Adivasis had perished in these migrations. The song below captures the hopes of the migrants and the reality they faced in Assam.

Come Mini, let’s go to Assam
Our country has so much suffering
The country of Assam,
oh Mini has tea gardens full of greenery…
The Sardar says work, work
The Babu says catch and bring them in
The Saheb says I’ll take off the skin of your back
Hey Jaduram, you deceived us by sending us to Assam.

Source: Basu, S. Jharkhand Movement: Ethnicity and Culture of Silence

Ans: This poem highlights the tragic reality of Adivasi migration under false pretences. It conveys the stark contrast between promised opportunities and the brutal exploitation faced by the Adivasis.

Questions on Page No. 69

Ques 1. In your opinion, why is it important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used?

Ans: Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used because:

  • Their communities have resided in these forests for centuries, possessing deep-rooted knowledge about sustainable practices and resource utilisation.
  • Also, their livelihoods depend on the forest. The forests are their home, offering food, medicine, and materials. Therefore, decisions impacting the environment directly affect their way of life.

Questions on Page No. 70

Ques 1. Why do we need safeguards for minorities?

Ans: We need safeguards for minorities to:

  • Protect their culture
  • Preserve their language
  • Protect them from discrimination
  • Provide them with equal rights to safeguard them from the domination of the majority

Ques 2. Look at the following table and answer the question:

Access to Basic Amenities (2008-2009) 

(Source: India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion, Oxford University Press for Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, p. 346, 389, 392.)

Religious CommunityPucca HouseElectricityTap Water

Which of these communities have the most and the least access to basic amenities?

Ans: Hindus have the most access to basic amenities. Whereas, Muslims have the least access to basic amenities. 

Questions on Page No. 71

Ques 1. Look at the following table and answer the question:

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation: Data

(Source: NCERT)

Which of these communities have the highest and the lowest literacy rate?

Ans: Jains have the highest literacy rate. Whereas, Muslins have the lowest literacy rate. 

Ques 2. Look at the following table and answer the question:

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation: Data

(Source: NCERT)

What do these figures convey?

Ans:  The table presents percentages for Muslim representation in various government sectors like Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Forest Service (IFS), Central Public Sector Unit (PSU), State Public Sector Unit (PSU), and Banks & Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The data is reportedly sourced from the ‚ÄúReport of the Prime Minister‚Äôs High-Level Committee on the Social, Economic and Educational Status of Muslims in India (Sachar Committee Report 2006)‚ÄĚ.

As per the figures, there is a very low representation of Muslims in different sectors of public employment. 

Ques 3. Read the data related to schooling provided by the Sachar Committee Report:

25 per cent of Muslim children in the 6-14 year age group have either never been enrolled in school or have dropped out. This percentage is much higher than that of any other socio-religious community.

Do you think special measures are required to address this situation?

Ans: Here are some recommendations by the Sachar Committee:

  • It underscored the need for targeted interventions and policies to address the socio-economic disparities faced by the Muslim community.
  • Also, the committee likely recommended affirmative action measures, educational reforms, and economic empowerment initiatives to uplift the Muslim community.
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation

Lastly, we have NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation to questions in the Exercises section of the lesson. 


Ques 1. Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‚Äėmarginalisation‚Äô.

Ans: Marginalisation means when certain people or groups are pushed to the edges of society and treated as unimportant. This happens because of things like facing difficulties, being treated unfairly, being poor, belonging to a specific caste, feeling helpless, or not having access to basic needs like education, healthcare, and clean water. It is like being left out or ignored by the larger community. Marginalisation can happen because of someone’s caste, their social class, their gender, their race, or their religion.

Ques 2. List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.

Ans: Here are the two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised:

  • Forest lands have been cleared for timber, agriculture, and industry, leading to Adivasi displacement.
  • Mining projects and industrialisation often encroach on Adivasi lands without proper procedures.

Ques 3. Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important.

Ans: Constitutional safeguards to protect minority communities are important to prevent the domination of majority culture and ensure the upliftment of the minority culture. Also, the safeguards prevent the discrimination of minorities by the majority communities. 

Ques 4. Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term ‚Äėminority‚Äô?

Ans: A minority refers to a group within a larger society that possesses characteristics such as religion or language that distinguish them from the majority of the population. 

In the context of India, minorities are specifically protected under Article 29 of the Constitution, ensuring their rights and safeguarding their cultural identity. Minorities may face challenges such as discrimination, limited access to resources, and potential marginalization due to their smaller size or distinct characteristics. Safeguards are in place to promote equality, prevent domination by the majority, and foster the preservation and flourishing of minority cultures and languages.

Ques 5. You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement:

‚ÄėMuslims are a marginalised community‚Äô. 

Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.

Ans: Here are two reasons why ‚ÄėMuslims are a marginalised community‚Äô in India:

  • Their population is only 14.2% of the Indian population. (Census 2011)
  • In comparison to Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians, Muslims have lower access to basic amenities such as tap water, pucca houses, and electricity. (India Human Development Report 2011)

Ques 6. Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, ‚ÄúLook at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time‚ÄĚ. 

List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.

Ans: Here are the three things I would like to tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India:

  • Adivasis know a lot about forests. 
  • They used to hunt and gather food and moved from place to place. Sometimes they also farmed in one spot. Because they knew so much about forests, kings in ancient times valued them. 
  • They have their native languages and even helped shape other Indian languages, like Bengali.

Ques 7. In the storyboard, you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?

Ans: Here is an example of a short story. You can take inspiration from it and create your own.

Maya, a young Adivasi girl, skipped through the dappled sunlight. Her nimble fingers gathered tendu leaves, a source of meagre income for their village. Laughter echoed as children chased butterflies, their joyous cries a stark contrast to the worry etched on elder faces.

Their world, a haven nestled amidst the vibrant greens, was under threat. Whispers reached the village Рthe mines were expanding.  The ancient Sal trees, home to their spirits, were marked for felling.

One evening, the village elders huddled by the flickering fire. Maya’s grandfather, his weathered face etched with concern, spoke of their ancestors’ fight to protect their land. A spark flickered in Maya’s eyes.

Next morning, she stood before the villagers, her voice, small yet firm. “We are the children of the forest. This land is our heritage. We will fight for it like our ancestors did.”

The silent villagers exchanged glances. A slow nod rippled through the crowd. Maya, the spark, had ignited a fire. The camera pans towards the approaching bulldozers, the determined faces of the Adivasis forming a human wall, their fight for their land, their way of life, a story waiting to be told.

Ques 8. Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?

Ans: Yes, economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are like two sides of the same coin. Economic marginalisation restricts access to financial resources, hindering education, and quality healthcare, and often leading to inadequate housing. This lack of necessities weakens an individual’s social standing and ability to participate fully in society.

Furthermore, social marginalisation, based on factors like race, ethnicity, or disability, can create stereotypes and prejudice. This can hinder employment opportunities and economic mobility, perpetuating the cycle of financial hardship.

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8
Source: Magnet Brains
Birsa Munda: Life and his Ulgulan MovementInternational Day of World’s Indigenous Peoples
Tribes of India: The Ancient People & Their CultureTribal Movement in India- Causes and Major Revolts
NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 ‚ÄėTribes, Nomads and Settled Communities‚Äô: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29 & 30)
ST CategoryTraditional Art Forms of India: Folk Art, Tribal Art of India
Santhal Rebellion: Background, Causes and SignificanceRani Gaidinliu and The Heraka Movement


Q1. Which are marginalised communities in India?

Ans: Adivasis, Dalits, and Muslims are marginalised communities in India.

Q2. Where can I download NCERT Solutions Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation? 

Ans: You can download NCERT Class 8 Civics solutions at Leverage Edu.

Q3. Where can I download NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 5 Understanding Marginalisation?

Ans: You can download NCERT chapters from the official NCERT website. 

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Civics.

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