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Important Articles in Indian Constitution Explained

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India is regarded amongst the largest democracies in the world. Our Indian constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, and was formulated with the context of almost 200 years of colonial rule, many freedom struggles, Indian national movement as well as considering communal violence and the country’s glorious history. Considered as the law of the land, it elucidates the powers and limitations of the three vital constituents of the State, i.e. Judiciary, Legislative and Executive. There are various important articles in Indian Constitution providing a common person with their fundamental rights, political code, procedures as well as their duties. Through this blog, we will be exploring the important articles in the Indian Constitution and their key features.

What are Articles in Indian Constitution? 

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The Indian Constitution encompasses a total of 448 articles and each set of these articles corresponds to the quintessential laws and guidelines pertaining to Legislatures, Constitutional Bodies, Fundamental Rights, Executive, Parts of Indian Constitution, Statutory Bodies, and Schedules, to name a few. In simple terms, an article can be termed as a guideline and is in context to the section included in the different acts. Originally, there were a total of 395 articles in Indian Constitution which were expanded to 448 with 104 amendments introduced.

An article in the Indian constitution is proper guidelines that define a rule. Moreover, it is more of a principle that mainly defines an act. The constitution of India whose chief architect was a prolific Indian politician called B.R Ambedkar is an amalgamation of important articles. All those articles are dealing with the ruling framework of government, fundamental rights of a person, election scenario etc. So much so, that it is rightly considered the longest-written constitution of any country. 

All Important Articles in Indian Constitution

While preparing for Indian Polity for government exams and UPSC exams, it is essential to understand the different articles and amendments of the Indian Constitution. So, to help you ace your preparations, we have listed down the most important articles in the Indian Constitution and their features:

Important Articles in Indian ConstitutionDetails
Article 1 Name and territory of the Union
Article 3Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states
Article 13Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights
Article 14Equality before the law
Article 16Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 17Abolition of untouchability
Article 19Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
Article 21Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 21A Right to elementary education
Article 25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 30Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
Article 31 CSaving of laws giving effect to certain Directive Principles
Article 32Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights including writs
Article 38State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people
Article 40The organisation of village panchayats
Article 44Uniform Civil Code for the citizens
Article 45Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.
Article 46Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections
Article 50Separation of judiciary from the executive
Article 51Promotion of international peace and security
Article 51 AFundamental Duties
Article 72Powers of President to grant pardons, suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
Article 74Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President
Article 76Attorney-General of India
Article 78Duties of the Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
Article 110Definition of Money Bills
Article 112Annual Financial Statement (Budget)
Article 123Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament
Article 143Power of President to consult Supreme Court
Article 148Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
Article 149Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
Article 155Appointment of the Governor
Article 161Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
Article 163Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor
Article 165Advocate-General of the state which British Laws are still used in India
Article 167Duties of Chief Minister with regard to the furnishing of information to the Governor, etc.
Article 168Constitution of Legislatures in the states
Article 169Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in the states
Article 170Composition of Legislative Assemblies in the states
Article 171Composition of Legislative Councils in the states
Article 172Duration of State Legislatures
Article 173Qualification for membership of the State Legislature
Article 174Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
Article 178Speakers and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
Article 194Powers, privileges, and Immunity of Advocate-General
Article 200Assent to bills by the governor (including reservation for President)
Article 202Annual financial statement of the State Legislature
Article 210Language to be used in the State Legislature
Article 212Courts are not to inquire into proceedings of the State Legislature  
Article 213Power of governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of the State Legislature
Article 214High courts for the states
Article 217Appointment and the conditions of the office of the judge of a High Court
Article 226Power of high courts to issue certain writs
Article 239AASpecial provisions with respect to Delhi
Article  243BConstitution of Panchayats
Article 243CComposition of Panchayats
Article 243GPowers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
Article 243KElections to the Panchayats
Article 249Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest
Article 262Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers or river valleys
Article 263Provisions with respect to an inter-state council
Article  265Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law
Article 275Grants from the Union to certain states
Article 280Finance Commission
Article  300Suits and proceedings
Article 300APersons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law (Right to property)
Article 311Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a state.
Article  312All-India Services
Article 315Public Service Commission for the Union and for the states
Article 320Functions of Public Service Commissions
Article 323-AAdministrative Tribunals
Article  324superintendence, direction, and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission
Article 330Reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the House of the People
Article 335Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to Services and posts
Article 352Proclamation of Emergency (National Emergency)
Article 356Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states (President’s Rule)
Article 360Provisions as to Financial Emergency.
Article 365Effect of failure to comply with or to give effect to, directions given by the Union (President’s Rule)
Article 368Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor
Article 370Temporary provisions with respect to the state of Jammu and Kashmir

Must Read: Functions of the Parliament

Details about Important Articles in Indian Constitution

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Since you are familiar with the list of 80 articles, let’s move ahead and understand some of the important articles in the Indian Constitution. 

Article 12-35: This article talks about fundamental rights. There are basically 6 fundamental rights that fall in this article including the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies. 

Article 36-51: This sort of article deals with the directive principles of state policy. It is important to know that the directive principles of state policy have been solely borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. Moreover, they also have been copied from the Spanish constitution. 

Article 51 A: Another important article extracted from the Indian constitution is Article 51A. It deals with the fundamental duties of a citizen. All these fundamental duties framed under this article are essential to adhere to every citizen. 

Article 343: This article talks about the official language of the Union. Furthermore, the union’s official language should be Hindi based in Devanagari script. The language can be used for various official purposes and other international forms. 

Article 356: This article in Indian Constitution deals with the imposition of the president’s rule. The President is the supreme authority in the Indian political landscape, who has powers to make many decisions. This article comprehensively tells about how the president can exercise powers. Overall we can say that this article powers the president to withdraw from the union the executive and legislative powers of any state.

Article 370: This is one of the important articles of Indian Constitution. The article thrusts upon the special powers with respect to Jammu and Kashmir. On 5th of August,2019, this article was scrapped paving the way for two new Union territories. Earlier the state of Jammu and Kashmir was more autonomous in terms of formulation of laws for its permanent residents. The state had its own flag and constitution and legislative assembly under this article. 

Article 395: This particular article repeals the Independence Act of 1947 and the Government of India Act, of 1935. It is important to mention that this article is more important in terms of landmark judgments as well as case laws.

Parts of the Constitution

Originally, the Indian constitution contained 395 articles that were divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules. Since its adoption, the number of articles has increased to 448 with various amendments and so have the parts of the constitution. The main parts of the Indian constitution are-

Parts The Subject of the PartArticles
Part IThe Union and its TerritoryArticles 1 to 4
Part IICitizenshipArticles 5 to 11
Part IIIFundamental RightsArticles 12 to 35
Part IVDirective Principles of State PolicyArticles 36 to 51
Part IV AFundamental DutiesArticle 51A
Part VThe UnionArticles 52 to 151
Chapter 1- The Executive (Articles 52 to 78)Chapter 2- Parliament (Articles 79 to 122)Chapter 3- Legislative Powers of the President (Article 123)Chapter 4- The Union Judiciary (Articles 124 to 147)Chapter 5- Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (Articles 148 to 151) 
Part VIThe StatesArticles 152 to 237
Chapter 1- General (Article 152)Chapter 2- The Executive (Articles 153 to 167)Chapter 3- The State Legislature (Articles 168 to 212)Chapter 4- Legislative Power of the Governor (Article 213)Chapter 5- The High Courts in the States (Articles 214 to 232)Chapter 6- Subordinate Courts (233 to 237)
Part VIINote: The 7th Amendment Act of 1956 repealed Part VII[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]NA
Part VIIIThe Union TerritoriesArticles 239 to 242
Part IXThe PanchayatsArticles 243 to 243-O
Part IX AThe MunicipalitiesArticles 243P to 243ZG
Part IX BThe Co-operative SocietiesArticles 243ZH to 243ZT
Part XThe Scheduled and Tribal AreasArticles 244 and 244A
Part XIRelations between The Union and the StatesArticles 245 to 263
Chapter 1- Legislative Relations (Articles 245 to 255)Chapter 2- Administrative Relations (256 to 263)
Part XIIFinance, Property, Contracts and SuitsArticles 264 to 300A
Chapter 1- Finance (Articles 264 to 291)Chapter 2- Borrowing (Articles 292 and 293)Chapter 3- Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits (Articles 294 to 300)Chapter 4- Right to Property (Article 300A)
Part XIIITrade, Commerce and Intercourse Within the Territory of IndiaArticles 301 to 307
Part XIVServices under the Union and the StatesArticles 308 to 323
Chapter 1- Services (Articles 308 to 314)Chapter 2- Public Service Commissions (Articles 315 to 323)
Part XIV ATribunalsArticles 323A and 323B
Part XVElectionsArticles 324 to 329A
Part XVISpecial Provisions Relating to Certain ClassesArticles 330 to 342A
Part XVIIOfficial LanguageArticles 343 to 351
Chapter 1- Language of the Union (Articles 343 and 344)Chapter 2- Regional Languages (Articles 345 to 347)Chapter 3- Language of the Supreme Court, High Courts, etc. (Articles 348 and 349)Chapter 4- Special Directives (Articles 350 to 351)
Part XVIIIEmergency ProvisionsArticles 352 to 360
Part XIXMiscellaneousArticles 361 to 367
Part XXAmendment of the ConstitutionArticle 368
Part XXITemporary, Transitional and Special ProvisionsArticles 369 to 392
Part XXIIShort Title, Commencement, Authoritative Text inHindi and RepealsArticles 393-395

Schedules in the Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India contains several schedules that provide additional details and information regarding various aspects of the country’s governance. 

ScheduleSchedule DescriptionArticles Associated
First Schedule It contains the names of States and Union Territories.Article 1Article 4
Second ScheduleIt contains provisions concerning allowances, privileges, and emoluments of government officials like the President, Governors, Chairman, Speakers, Judges etc.Article 53(3)Article 65(3)Article 75(6)Article 97Article 125Article 148(3)Article 158(3)Article 164(5)Article 186Article 221
Third ScheduleIt contains the forms of oath and affirmation.Article 75(4)Article 99Article 124(6)Article 148(2)Article 164(3)Article 188Article 219
Fourth ScheduleIt contains the provisions about the allocation of seats for States and Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha.Article 4(1)Article 80(2)
Fifth ScheduleIt contains provisions concerning the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes.Article 244(1)
Sixth ScheduleIt contains provisions about the administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.Article 244(2)Article 275(1)
Seventh Schedule It talks about the Three Legislative lists: the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List.Article 246
Eighth ScheduleIt talks about the Three Legislative lists: the Union List, State List, and the Concurrent List.Article 344(1)Article 351
Ninth ScheduleIt talks about state acts and regulations like Land Reforms and the abolition of the Zamindari System. It protects the laws from judicial intervention.Article 31B
Tenth ScheduleIt talks about the defection and disqualification of the members of Parliament and State Legislatures on similar grounds.Article 102(2)Article 191(2)
Eleventh ScheduleIt contains the provisions that specify the powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats. It has 29 matters.Article 243G
Twelfth ScheduleIt deals with the provisions that specify the powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities. Article 243W

Also read: Scope of Political Science

Books on Indian Constitution

Important Questions

Here is a list of questions related to important articles in the Indian Constitution for all government job aspirants: 

  • Which articles protect the interests of minorities in India? 
  • The bi-cameral legislature was introduced for the first time under which act? 
  • Which articles abolish untouchability? 
  • Constituent assembly adopted the constitution on which date? 
  • Which article promotes equality before the law? 
  • Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases” is a part of which article in the Indian constitution? 
  • Can you name the article that supports free legal aid for all? 
  • What is the relevance of Article 44 in the Indian constitution? 
  • Special Address by the president is a part of which article? 
  • Assent to bills comes under which article?

Also Read: Public Administration vs Political Science

Hope this blog has helped you with a thorough understanding of important articles in the Indian Constitution. Want to be part of overseas education in top-notch educational universities? Let the professionals at Leverage Edu facilitate your academic journey. Book your free 30 minutes of e-counseling with the team and explore world-class educational possibilities.

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