What is the Full Form of SNP?

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The full form of SNP is Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. In the vast field of DNA, SNP is a type of genetic variation that happens when a single nucleotide (the building blocks of DNA) at a particular position in the genome differs among individuals, and that directly causes a major change in the individual externally or internally. 

Fun Fact: The total number of SNPs in the human genome is estimated to be around 10 million or more! It is like having an expansive library of genetic possibilities, thus making each individual’s DNA a unique and fascinating story.

What is SNP?

In the world of genomics, SNP is the most common genetic variation. The SNPs symbolize the variations in the building block of DNA. These building blocks are known as nucleotides. Nucleotides can occur in various forms in a genome such as Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Adenine (A), or Guanine (G). They occur in several forms across different species. 

There are roughly around 4 to 5 million single nucleotides in the genome of an individual and SNPs occur after every 1000 nucleotides. To be categorized as an SNP, the variant at a minimum must be found in 1% of the population. According to some sources, biologists have traced around 600 million SNPs around the world in various individuals. 

Also Read: Best Genetic Engineering Colleges 2023

What is an Example of SNP?

One example of SNP is the variation in the gene responsible for determining blood type, which is the ABO gene. There are three main alleles (gene variations) in this gene- A, B, and O. The variation occurs at a specific position in the gene where a single nucleotide differs among individuals. For instance:

  • If you have the sequence AGG at that position, you might have blood type A.
  • If you have the sequence ATG, you might have blood type B.
  • If you have the sequence AGT, you might have blood type O.

This single nucleotide dissimilarity at a certain spot in the ABO gene is a classic example of an SNP influencing a trait and in this case the human blood type. It is important to remember that there are numerous other SNPs throughout the human genome that contribute to the unique traits and characteristics that make individuals distinct from one another.

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What is the Significance of SNP?

SNPs play an important role when it comes to the following reasons:

  • Genetic Differences: The differences that occur in every individual.
  • Disease Risk: Some SNPs can be linked to lower or higher risks of certain diseases.
  • Drug Responses: SNPs can influence how human bodies respond to a particular medication. 

Also Read: How to Become a Drug Inspector?

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