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What is the Full Form of PET?

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PET Full Form is Polyethylene terephthalate. It is a widely used thermoplastic polymer known for its versatility and applications across various industries. This blog explores the key aspects of PET, including its composition, production, properties, and diverse uses.

Composition and Production

PET consists of repeating units of C10H8O4, resulting from the polymerization of terephthalic acid (or dimethyl terephthalate) and monoethylene glycol.PET can be synthesized through esterification or transesterification reactions, with water or methanol as byproducts, respectively. Polymerization of the monomers occurs through a polycondensation reaction.

Properties

The properties of PET are stated below:

  • Young’s Modulus: PET exhibits a Young’s modulus ranging from 2800 to 3100 MPa, indicating its strength and rigidity.
  • Tensile Strength: PET has a tensile strength between 55 and 75 MPa, making it suitable for load-bearing applications.
  • Elastic Limit: PET can deform plastically by up to 150% before failure.
  • Glass Transition Temperature: The glass transition temperature (Tg) of PET falls within the range of 67 to 81 °C, influencing its thermal behavior.
  • Vicat B: PET has a Vicat B value of 82 °C, indicating its resistance to heat.
  • Water Absorption: PET exhibits low water absorption, measured at 0.16 according to ASTM standards.
  • Notch Test: PET has a notch test value of 3.6 kJ/m2, indicating its toughness.

Applications

  • Textiles: Polyester fibers, derived from PET, are extensively used in the textile industry. They find applications in clothing, thermal wear, sportswear, workwear, and automotive upholstery.
  • Rigid Packaging: PET is a common material for manufacturing plastic bottles, especially for soft drinks. Multilayer structures are employed for beverages sensitive to oxygen.
  • Flexible Packaging: Biaxially oriented PET (BOPET) film is used in flexible food packaging and thermal insulation. It can be aluminized to enhance properties.
  • Photovoltaic Modules: BOPET is the back sheet in photovoltaic modules, contributing to solar energy production.
  • Thermoplastic Resins: PET can be combined with glass fiber and crystallization accelerators to create thermoplastic resins used in various applications, such as electrical components.

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