Motivation and Emotion Class 11 Notes

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Motivation and Emotion Class 11 Psychology Notes

Motivation and emotion are connected in more ways than you can imagine. Emotions help in motivating individuals. The emotion of anger can be channelized into working hard towards your goal, and the feeling of sadness can demotivate you. The psychology subject of CBSE revolves around topics such as self and personality, and meeting life challenges and today we will be discussing motivation and emotion in class 11 notes.

Nature Of Motivation

The first topic of motivation and emotion class 11 Notes is the nature of motivation. It is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-driven behaviours. Motivation is the process that causes us to take action. Whether it is eating food to satiate hunger or doing exercise to keep our body fit. Motivation is one of the important determinants of behaviour and instincts, drives, goals, and needs are included in the broad concept of motivation

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Motivation Cycle

Source- Rajras
  1. A need is defined as a lack of some necessity
  2. Need further leads to drive which is defined as a state of arousal which energizes us to take action that will help us in accomplishing our goal
  3. After the accomplishment of a goal, there is a reduction in drive and at last, the organism achieves a balanced state as the needs are fulfilled

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Types of Motives

Motives are broadly categorized into two types. Biological and psychological motives. Let us explore more about these topics mentioned in motivation and emotion class 11 notes:

Biological Motives

They are present from birth and are universal in nature. Its main focus is on innate, biological causes of motivation like hormones, neurotransmitters, and brain structures(Limbic System, Hypothalamus). Some examples of biological motives are mentioned below:


  1. Changes in the metabolic functions of the liver lead to a feeling of hunger
  2. The liver sends signals to the hypothalamus and the two regions involved in hunger are the Lateral Hypothalamus and Ventromedial Hypothalamus the first region’s stimulation causes hunger and the second region inhibits hunger.


  1. Drinking water is necessary to wet a dry mouth and along with dry mouth, it is the body processes within which leads to a feeling of thirst.
  2. Motivation to drink water is mainly triggered by conditions such as loss of water from cells, reduction of blood volume and the anterior hypothalamus containing nerve cells called osmoreceptors which generate nerve impulses in case of cell dehydration.


  1. One of the most powerful drives in the case of animals and human beings is called the sex drive
  2. Sexual activity, unlike thirst, hunger is not necessary for the survival of human beings and it develops with age.]
Credits : Poly Psychology

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 Psychosocial Motives

They evolve with age and are influenced by culture. Its main focus is on psychological, social, and environmental factors and how these factors interact with one another which leads to a feeling of motivation. Examples include the need for achievement, affiliation, power, etc.

Need for Affiliation

  1. Seeking other human beings and wanting to develop a close relationship with them is termed affiliation.
  2. People who are high on this need, to develop friendly relations with others and have the urge to be a part of all the social groups.

Need For Power

  1. It is defined as the ability of a person to produce intended effects on the behaviour and emotions of another person.
  2. Various goals of power motivation are to influence, persuade others and enhance one’s own goodwill in the eyes of others

Need for Achievement

  1. This need refers to the desire of a person to meet standards of excellence
  2. It energizes and directs behaviour as well as influences our perception of the situations we face.

Curiosity and Exploration 

  1. It doesn’t have a specific and identifiable goal or target 
  2. It basically includes seeking new experiences, learning new things, and enhancing one’s knowledge.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

 Maslow came up with his theory of motivation which clearly portrayed all human needs in a hierarchical manner:

  1. Physiological needs include all the basic needs like food, water, and warmth which are necessary for survival
  2. Safety needs include staying safe from any kind of danger and it includes job security as well which ensures financial security
  3. Belongingness needs which focus on seeking out cordial relationships with others and companionship
  4. Esteem Needs to focus on developing a feeling of self-worth and pride which gives a boost to self-confidence and self-esteem
  5. Self-Actualization Needs mainly focus on unleashing one’s potential to the fullest and a self-actualized person is self-aware, socially responsive, face difficulties and challenges, etc

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Frustration and Conflict

Frustration – It occurs when an anticipated desirable goal is not achieved and the motive is blocked. Frustration is an aversive state and no one likes the state of frustration.

  1. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis- It was given by Dollard and Miller. As per this theory, Frustration produces aggression and aggressive acts are often directed towards the self or blocking agent. Sources of frustration are:
  1. Environmental Factors- These factors include physical objects or constraining situations that limit a person from accomplishing their goal.
  2. Personal Factors- They include inadequacy or lack of resources which makes it difficult for a person to accomplish their goals.

Conflict – It occurs when a person has to make a choice between desires, needs, and motives that are contradictory in nature. There are three basic forms of conflict mentioned below:

  1. Approach-Approach conflict is a conflict between two positive and equally attractive options and we get to choose between two of them. For example, Making a choice between two equally attractive colleges to seek admission, such as SRCC and Hindu college
  2. Avoidance- Avoidance conflict is a conflict between two negative and equally unattractive options and we have to make a choice between the given options. For Example- Choosing between Roadside food and starvation
  3. Approach Avoidance Conflict -It arises from being attracted to and repelled by the same goal. For example, a person wants to lose weight but is reluctant to follow the diet

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Nature of Emotions

Emotions involve arousal, subjective arousal, and cognitive interpretation of the given situation. They move us internally and involve both psychological and physiological reactions. There are 6 basic emotions which are mentioned below in the motivation and emotion class 11 notes:

  1. Anger
  2. Fear 
  3. Surprise
  4. Disgust
  5. Surprise
  6. Joy

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Physiology of Emotions

The nervous system central as well as peripheral plays an important role in the regulation of emotions. Check out the physiology of emotions mentioned below:


  • It is composed of a group of nerve cells and acts as a relay centre of sensory nerves.
  • Stimulation or Activation of the thalamus produces fear, anxiety, and automatic reactions
  • A theory of emotion given by Cannon and Bard(1931) focuses on the role of the thalamus in mediating and initiating all emotional experiences.


  • It is intimately involved in the regulation of emotions.
  • The left frontal cortex is associated with positive feelings and the Right frontal cortex is associated with negative feelings.


  • Considered as the primary centre for the regulation of emotion.
  • It controls autonomic activity, and secretion of endocrine glands and organizes somatic patterns of emotional behaviour.

Limbic System

  • Along with the thalamus and hypothalamus, the limbic system plays an important role in regulating our emotions.
  • The Amygdala, which is an important part of the limbic system, is responsible for emotional control and the formation of emotional memories.

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Theories Of Motivation

Over a period of time, different theories of motivation are given. Here are the three major theories of motivation:

James Lange Theory

  • The stimulus leads to arousal and that arousal leads to emotion.
  • For example, the sound of breaking glass leads to physiological responses like rapid heart rate and that leads to the subjective experience of fear.

Cannon-Bard Theory

  • The stimulus leads to both arousal and emotion at the same time.
  • For example, The sound of breaking glass will lead to both physiological responses like rapid heart rate and subjective feelings of fear and tension at the same time.

Schachter Singer’s Theory of Motivation

  • In order to understand what kind of person we are, we will first observe what we feel and act upon, and hence, we decide and interpret our nature from this.
  • This implies that the first step is to experience physiological arousal, we then try to find a label to elaborate upon our feelings, usually by looking at what we are doing and what else is happening at the same time of arousal.
  • Hence, we experience feelings and then try to understand what their meaning is.

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Managing Negative Emotions

Negative emotions need to be managed in an effective manner to reduce our stress and improve our well-being. Here are a few steps to manage your negative emotions:

  1. Enhance Self-Awareness – Being aware of one’s emotions and delving into the hows and whys of one’s emotions help in managing negative emotions
  2. Appraise the situation objectively- The problematic situation faced should be appraised in an objective manner which means that it should be viewed without any bias and that will help us in seeing things from a proper perspective.
  3. Participate In Community Service- Being active in community service and charitable endeavours helps in reducing stress and management of negative emotions
  4. Be creative- Involving oneself in a creative hobby like writing, or painting gives a direction to our energy and hence, we are able to manage our negative emotions easily.
  5. Have Empathy- Stepping into others’ shoes and seeing the situation from their point of view not only builds a great relationship with the other person but also reduces stress and anger.

Anger Management

Anger Management is not easy. Here are a few tips and tricks mentioned in Motivation and Emotion class 12 notes to manage your anger:

  • Give yourself time to recognize destructive behaviour and thinking patterns and come up with a positive alternative to the same
  • Don’t have irrational beliefs about people and events
  • Recognize the power of thoughts 
  • Look inward not outward for anger control
  • Find constructive and rational ways of expressing anger

Enhancing Positive Emotions

Enhancing positive emotions is crucial for our physical and mental well-being and some of the effective ways of enhancing positive emotions are as follows:

  1. Personality traits like optimism, confidence, and hopefulness are important
  2. Looking at the positive side of a problematic situation
  3. Having cordial relationships with family members and friends 
  4. Being engaged in work and attaining mastery of work
  5. Having a strong purpose in life instils a sense of positivity in our lives

Motivation and Emotion Class 11 PDF

Motivation and Emotion Class 11 NCERT Solutions

Q, Explain the concept of motivation.

Ans. Motivation is that process that causes us to take action, Whether it is eating food to satiate hunger or doing exercise to keep our body fit.

Q2. Why is it important to manage negative emotions? Suggest some ways to manage negative emotions?

Ans. It is important to manage negative emotions for our physiological and psychological well-being. Some of the ways of managing negative emotions are enhancing self-awareness, Doing self-monitoring, etc.

Q3. What is the basic idea behind Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? Explain with examples.

Ans. Maslow came up with his theory of motivation which clearly portrayed all the human needs in a hierarchical manner and he basically talked about 5 needs which are as follows:

  1. Biological Needs
  2. Safety and Security Needs
  3. Affiliation Needs
  4. Esteem Needs
  5. Self-Actualization Needs                             


What is the difference between motivation and emotion?

Emotions are psychological sensations that cause mood swings. In psychology, motivation and emotion are linked. Motivation is the drive to achieve goals that one has set for themselves. Motives are frequently the causes of human behaviour.

What exactly are motivation and emotion?

We generally think of motivation as something that motivates a person to act and behave in order to attain a desired goal, whereas emotion refers to the feelings that arise from the motive or drive itself, the actions generated by the motive, and the achievement or failure of the desired goal.

What is the emotion concept in class 11?

Emotions are a multifaceted pattern of arousal, subjective emotion, and cognitive interpretation. Emotions, as we experience them, move us within, involving both bodily and psychological responses. Emotion is a subjective feeling, and people’s emotional experiences differ.

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