A human mechanism that never stops. Thinking is a process that generates ideas and keeps our flow of thought. However, there are multiple ways and complexities when it comes to thinking. It is easy to understand and this interesting chapter of Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes broadens our horizons of knowledge about the way we think about this world. The notes for Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes are given below.
Also Read: Psychology Class 11 Chapter 1
Nature of Thinking
The first topic under Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes is the nature of thinking. Thinking is a higher mental process that involves analysing and drawing meaning from the information which we receive from our environment.
- It is considered as the base of all the cognitive activities like Problem Solving, Decision Making, etc.
- It is an internal mental process that can be understood from our overt Behaviour
- It is goal-directed in nature
Building blocks of thought
People usually think by means of mental images or thoughts which are discussed below-
- It is defined as a mental representation of sensory experience
- We usually think about places, events, etc
- For example, using maps and locating different places there subsequently requires the use of mental images.
Images are of two types-
- Memory image includes those images that resemble the object or event being represented.
- Eidetic Image is usually a sharp and detailed visual representation of something that has been seen.
- Whenever we come across a novel object we try to understand what it actually is, what its features and characteristics are and we try to match it with features of the existing category, and if it is a perfect match we include that object in the category with whom it’s features match.
- A concept is defined as the mental representation of categories and refers to those ideas, objects which share common properties and features.
Concepts are of two types-
- Natural concepts have no set of properly defined features that are based on prototypes.
- Logical Concepts are the ones that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or features.
Why do we need to Form concepts?
We need to form concepts because of the reasons mentioned below:
- It helps in Organizing our knowledge and that makes our knowledge accessible when we need it.
- Saves our time and effort.
- We form concepts to make our thought process quick and efficient.
In the Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes, Problem-solving is described as a way of thinking that is usually goal-directed and intended towards solving a particular problem.
Obstacles To Solving Problems
- A Mental set is defined as the tendency of a person to solve problems in an already tried and tested manner and that at times leads to rigidity which obstructs us in solving problems in a unique manner.
- Lack Of Motivation is also another reason why people fail to solve problems because even if a person has a sharp mind and intelligence but lacks motivation then that intelligence is of very little use.
The next important aspect during thinking for Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes is reasoning. It is a process that involves inference and is used in logical thinking and problem solving and conclusions are drawn in reasoning on the basis of the information and facts available.
|Deductive Reasoning||Inductive Reasoning|
|Deductive Reasoning begins with making a general assumption about something and draws conclusions on the basis of those assumptions. It is Reasoning from general to particular. Accurate assumptions should be made so that we are able to draw apt conclusions.||Inductive Reasoning is based on specific facts and observations. It involves drawing a general conclusion based on a particular observation. The goal is to determine what conclusion can be drawn from certain given information.|
- Decision-Making is a kind of problem-solving in which we have several alternatives and after evaluating the cost and benefit associated with each alternative, the best alternative must be chosen.
- Judgment and Decision Making are interrelated processes. However, judgment is a process by which we form opinions, arrive at conclusions, and make critical evaluations about objects, events, and people on the basis of available information
Nature and process of Creative Thinking
Let’s go through the nature and process of creative thinking for Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes. Creative thinking as the name suggests is mainly about solving problems in a novel and unique manner and coming up with something unique or out of the box.
- It includes both convergent and divergent thinking but more convergent thinking.
- Creativity can be applied in most fields and everyone has the potential to be creative.
- Convergent thinking has only one correct answer and it does not lead to the generation of new ideas.
- Divergent Thinking has many correct answers and leads to the generation of new and novel ideas.
Stages of Creative Thinking are discussed below:
|Preparation||The problem is clearly formulated in this stage and facts and information about the problem is collected to comprehensively understand and analyse the problem.|
|Incubation||It is the second stage of Creative Thinking and is characterized by a feeling of getting stuck as creative ideas don’t occur when we consciously think about the problem. They usually occur during the time of relaxation.|
|Illumination||It is the third stage of Creative Thinking where there is the sudden realization of the solution of the problem into the consciousness|
|Verification||In the fourth stage of Creative Thinking, the solution is found in the illumination stage is tested to see that whether it works or not and what kind of modification is needed is also considered.|
|Revision||In the last stage of Creative Thinking, if a solution is not reached, a revision may be a prerequisite.|
Barriers to creative thinking
Barriers to Creative Thinking are discussed below-
- The tendency to be overpowered and influenced by pre-existing habits is a huge obstruction in the creative thinking process and coming up with out of the box ideas
- Motivational and emotional barriers show that creativity is more than just a cognitive process as other factors like fear of failure, lack of motivation hinder our creative thinking ability
- Cultural Barriers are related to excessive adherence to tradition, expectations, and Conformity. it arises due to the fear of being different, social pressure, mediocrity, etc.
Strategies to overcome creative thinking Barriers
Strategies that can be used to overcome barriers associated with creative thinking are elucidated below:
- Encourage self-evaluation.
- Be positive and confident in life.
- Develop independent thinking in making judgments.
- See multiple angles and perspectives of a particular problem.
- Resist the temptation of instant gratification.
Ways to enhance creative thinking
Let’s check out ways to improve thinking in Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes. Some of the ways which can be used to enhance creative thinking are elucidated below:
- Osborn’s Brainstorming technique can be used to increase fluency and flexibility of ideas to open-ended situations which does help in increasing the fluency of ideas and piling up alternatives.
- Getting feedback on the solutions we devise from those who have less personal involvement in the task helps us to see the problem in an objective and unbiased manner.
- Developing Independent Thinking in taking decisions and making judgments increase our self-esteem.
- The use of imagination and visualization helps us increase our creative potential.
- Diagram thinking-sometimes ideas cluster like branches of a tree and this way we can organise our ideas in a systematic and organized manner.
Thought and Language
The next topic discussed for Thinking Class 11 Psychology Notes is Thinking and Language.
Language as a Determinant of Thought
- Benjamin Lee Whorf had this point of view that the language we use determines the content of our thought which is termed the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis.
- The extent to which individuals can think is to a large extent determined by the language we use.
Thought as a Determinant of language
- Piaget believed that thought not only determines language, it precedes it
- Children form an internal representation of the world.
- Through thinking, language is just a vehicle for thought.
- A child’s observation and imitation of the other person’s behavior involves thinking but no language.
Different origins of language and thought
- Lev Vygotsky who is an esteemed Russian Psychologist was of the view that language and thought to develop separately in a child until about two years of age when they merge
- Before 2 years of age, thought is experienced more in action rather than verbal.
- Around 2 years of age child begins to express his/her thought verbally and in a rational way.
Development Of Language and Language Use
Language involves the use of symbols and symbols represent someone or something. It involves the use of rules and when we present two or more words together a proper and logical sequence is followed. Language is primarily used for communicating one’s thoughts, feelings, and ideas to others People who can’t use oral speech communicate through the use of signs which is a form of language
Development Of Language
Human Language is more complex, creative, and spontaneous as compared to the system of Communication which other animals use
Stages of Language Development are elaborated below:
- Newborn babies and young infants make a variety of sounds which gradually get modified to resemble words. The first sound produced by babies is crying which is similar across many situations and pitch intensity changes to signify different states such as hunger, pain, etc.
- At around 6 months of age, children enter the babbling phase which involves repetition of a variety of vowel and condiment words.
- By about 9 months of age, these sounds get elaborated to strings to some sound combinations such as (dadada) into repetitive patterns.
- Around 1st birthday most of the children enter the one-word stage and the first word usually contains one syllable(example ma,pa).
- Around 18-20 months of age children enter two words stage which exemplifies telegraphic speech and contains mostly mound and verbs
- Close to their 3rd Birthday which is 2.5 years, children’s language development gets focused on the rules of the language they hear. This is called Syntactic Development.
How language is Acquired?
- Some suggest that language acquisition is primarily biologically determined. This is typically a nativity position in the nature-nurture debate.
- Language development for Behaviourists like B.F.Skinner follows learning principles like association, imitation, and reinforcement that is in terms of operant conditioning
- Noam Chomsky suggested that children are born with a language acquisition device, LAD, which represents knowledge of universal grammar.
NCERT solutions Thinking class 11
Thinking is the base of all cognitive activities which involves analyzing and drawing meaning from the given information
The obstacles which people may encounter in problem-solving are Mental Set and Lack Of Motivation
Various barriers to Creative Thinking are personal, motivational, and Cultural Barriers.
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