Class 12 Macroeconomics

4 minute read
Class 12 Macroeconomics

Economics is an essential subject, especially in the commerce stream but is frequently offered to science and humanities students. Being a ‘scoring subject’, Economics is the study of choices as well as the optimal utilisation of resources. At the secondary level, it is majorly bifurcated into two sub-branches called Macroeconomics and Microeconomics. While microeconomics is included under the class 11 syllabus, macroeconomics is provided at an advanced level in class 12. Through this blog, we will delve deeper into the class 12 macroeconomics syllabus and course structure as well as its key components.

Class 12 Macroeconomics: Overview

As an integral field of Social Sciences, Economics is a vast domain comprising of interdisciplinary constituents. Dealing with the study of the economy as a whole, Macroeconomics assesses all those factors that have an impact on the entire economy and its essentials such as economic growth, economic declines, unemployment, inflation, etc. Further, it also includes many other features such as national income, commercial banking system and government budget amongst others.

Must Read: Class 12 Economics – CBSE Course Structure

Structure and Syllabus of Class 12 Macroeconomics

Class 12 Macroeconomics

Now, let us look at the marks distribution and unit bifurcation of class 12 macroeconomics through the following table.

Units ParticularsMarks (100)Periods 
Part AIntroductory Macroeconomics 40100
Part B Indian Economic Development40100
Part CProject Work 2020

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics 

Class 12 Macroeconomics is divided into a total of 5 units covering a plethora of aspects of the study of the economy as well as its vital constituents and related factors. Take a look at the enlisted units for this section which are further elaborated upon in the following paragraphs:

National Income and Related Aggregates 1028
Money and Banking 615
Determination of Income and Employment 1227
Government Budget and the Economy 615
Balance of Payments 615

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates 

  • What is Macroeconomics?
  • Consumer goods; final goods; capital goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation; basic concepts in Macroeconomics; 
  • Methods of calculating National Income-: Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method; 
  • Circular flow of income (Two sector model); 
  • Aggregates related to National Income: Net National Product (NNP), Gross National Product (GNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP)- at factor cost, at market price, Real and Nominal GDP
  • Welfare and GDP

Unit 2: Money and Banking 

  • Money- Supply of money and meaning- public currency and the deposits held by commercial banks; 
  • Money creation by the commercial banking systems; 
  • Functions of the central bank (example of the Reserve Bank of India):  Government bank; Bank of issues; control of credit through bank rate; banker’s bank; CRR; SLR; Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate; margin requirement; open market operations. 

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment

  • Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
  • Investment multiplier and its mechanism; 
  • Short-run Equilibrium output;
  • Aggregate demand and its various components; 
  • Detailed meaning of involuntary unemployment and full employment
  • Diverse problems of excess demand and deficient demand
  • various measures and ways to correct them- changes in governmental spending; money and taxes supply.

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy 

  • Classification of Expenditure- capital expenditure and revenue expenditure; Classification of Receipts- capital receipts and revenue receipts; 
  • Meaning, objective and components of Government Budget; 
  • Multiple measures of government deficit- fiscal and revenue deficits and primary deficits and their meaning.     

Unit 5: Balance of Payments

  • Foreign exchange rate- definition and meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating;
  • Determination of the exchange rate in the market;
  • Balance of payments accounts- different components and meanings.
Source: YouTube – CA Parag Gupta

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Class 12 Macroeconomics

Class 12 Macroeconomics Part B deals with Indian Economic Development. Take a look at the enlisted units for this section which are further elaborated upon in the following paragraphs:

Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 19911228
Current Challenges Facing the Indian Economy2235
Development Experience of India612

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

  1. Introduction of the Indian Economy
  2. Common Goals of five-year plans of the Indian Economic System
  3. Agricultural policies
  4. Industry and foreign trades
  5. Liberalization and Privatization 
  6. Demonetisation and GST

Unit 7: Current Challenges Facing the Indian Economy

  1. Poverty
  2. Rural Development
  3. Infrastructure
  4. Unemployment
  5. Human Capital Formation

Unit 8: Development Experiences of India

  1. Comparison of economic development with neighbouring countries
  2. Issues concerning the economic development of India

Tabulated below are some beneficial links for class 12th students:   

Class 12 English
Business Studies Class 12 Case StudiesCBSE
Class 12
Best Courses
after 12th Arts
Delhi University
Courses After 12th
What To Study
After 12th?
Courses after the 12thCommerce Stream
Study in Singapore
After 12th
Study Abroad
After 12th
Class 12 Physics ChaptersCBSE Chemistry
Syllabus for Class 12
Class 12 – CBSE
Course Structure


What are the chapters of Macroeconomics class 12?

There are 6 chapters in class 12 Macroeconomics:
1. Introduction to Macro Economics
2. National Income Accounting
3. Money and Banking
4. Determination of Income and Employment
5. Government Budget and the Economy
6. Open Economy Macroeconomics

Who is the father of economics?

Adam Smith is regarded as the father of Economics.

Is class 12 economics tough?

Class 12 Economics difficulty level is moderate. With right amount of preparation and hard work students can easily get good marks.

Thus, we hope that this blog has helped you understand the syllabus for class 12 macroeconomics. Are you unsure about which direction to take after class 12th? Sign up for a free 30-minute career counselling session with our experienced mentors at Leverage Edu and we will guide in sorting out your interests and skills to finding an ideal course and university to sail further towards the next phase of your career journey.     

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *