The collection of data aims to collect evidence for attaining a sound and comprehensible solution to a problem. To understand the inconsistencies in the output, we need the ‘data’ on the generation. It is a process which is conducted to measure and gather information. ‘Data’ is a device, which aids in the comprehension of problems by providing knowledge. Here is this blog, we will talk in detail about the Class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data.
Must Read: Business Services Class 11 Notes
What are the Sources of Data?
To understand more about the chapter Class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data, we fist need to know the sources of data. Statistical data can be obtained from two sources:
- Primary data
- Secondary data
We further move on to the concept of primary data in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data. The important points of primary data are:
- The enumerator (person who assembles the data) may collect the data by administering an inquiry or research. Such data is called Primary Data, as it is formulated on first-hand information.
- Primary data are unique, do not require any modification, and are costly.
Next important form of data in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data is secondary data.
- If the data have been examined and analyzed by another agency, they are called Secondary Data. Usually, the issued data are secondary.
- They are already in the presence and therefore are not unique.
- It demands to be modified to satisfy the aim of the study at hand.
- Secondary data are low priced.
How do we collect Data?
Collection of data is important in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data. It is done by the following ways:
- The survey aims to describe characteristics like cost, worth, utility (in case of the product) and reputation, honesty, loyalty (in case of the nominee).
- The objective of the survey is to gather data and is a method of gathering information from individuals.
Preparation of Instrument
The most prevalent type of tool employed in surveys is a questionnaire/ interview schedule. The questionnaire is either self-directed by the interviewee or conducted by the enumerator or qualified investigator. While drawing-up the questionnaire/interview schedule, the following points should be kept in mind:
- The questionnaire should not be lengthy.
- The array of problems should move from indefinite to distinct.
- Questions should not be enigmatic.
- Questions should not use binary negatives.
- Questions should not be leading.
- Questions should not indicate choices.
Also Read: Emerging Modes of Business Class 11 Notes
Mode of Data Collection
The next important topic in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data is the mode of data collection. The aim of probing questions is to survey the acquisition of data. There are three ways of collecting data:
- Personal Interviews
- Mailing (questionnaire) Surveys
- Telephone Interviews
Personal interviews form an important part in the mode of data collection in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data. In this method, the researcher has the main role as he/she conducts the interviews face to face with the respondents.Personal interviews are preferred due to various reasons:
- Highest Response Rate
- Allows use of all types of questions
- Better for using open-ended questions
- Allows clarification of ambiguous questions.
The personal interview has some demerits too:
- Most expensive
- Possibility of influencing respondents
- More time taking
Another important part in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data is the mailing questionnaire. In such a method, the data is collected through mail. The questionnaire is mailed to each person and a request is attached to complete and return it on time.
The advantages of this method are:
- Least expensive
- The only method to reach remote areas
- No influence on respondents
- Maintains anonymity of respondents
- Best for sensitive questions
The disadvantages of mail survey are:
- Cannot be used by illiterates
- Long response time
- Does not allow an explanation of unambiguous questions
- Reactions cannot be watched
In telephone interviews, the investigator asks questions over the telephone.
The advantages of telephone interviews are:
- Relatively low cost
- Relatively less influence on respondents
- Relatively high response rate.
The disadvantages of this method are:
- Limited use
- Reactions cannot be watched
- Possibility of influencing respondents
Explore: Accountancy Class 11 NCERT Solutions
The pilot survey is another important tool in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data.
- After the questionnaire is ready, it is desirable to carry a try-out with a diminutive group, known as Pilot Survey or Pre-Testing of the questionnaire.
- The pilot survey serves to give a preliminary impression of the survey.
- It helps to pretest the questionnaire, and know the lapses and drawbacks.
- It also aids to assess the appropriateness of questions, the accuracy of guidance, the administration of enumerators, and the expense and time required in the actual survey.
Census and Sample Surveys
Census and sample surveys are an important tool in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data.
- A survey, which encompasses every component of the population, is apprehended as Census or the Method of Complete Enumeration.
- The primary feature of this approach is that this comprises every individual unit in the whole population.
- A sample refers to a section of the population from which information has to be taken. A good sample (representative sample) is usually short and competent in giving reasonably accurate information about the population at a lower cost and in less time.
- Most of the surveys are sample surveys and are preferable in statistics because of several reasons.
- A sample can give rationally secure and authentic information at a lower cost and in less time.
- Now the question is how do you do the sampling? There are two main types of sampling:
- Random Sampling
- Non-random Sampling
- It is also known as the lottery method.
- Random sampling is where the specific units from the population (samples) are randomly selected.
- In random sampling, each person has an equal possibility of being chosen, and the person who is selected is the same as the one who is not selected.
- Random number tables are generated to ensure an equal chance of selection of every single unit in the population.
- They are accessible either in an issued form or can be generated by employing relevant software packages.
- In this method, units of the population don’t have equal chances of being selected.
- The convenience or interpretation of the investigator plays a crucial role in the adoption of the sample.
- They are chiefly selected based on belief, purpose, ease, or quota and are non-random samples.
Sampling and Non-sampling Errors
While conducting surveys, in class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data, sampli and non sampling errors find an important mention.
- Sampling error applies to the variations between the sample estimate and the actual value.
- It is the error that transpires when you observe the sample taken from the population.
- The point of differentiation between the actual parameter of population and its estimate is known as sampling error.
Non-sampling errors are more consequential than sampling errors. Sampling error can be minimized by taking a larger sample, on the other hand, it is difficult to minimize non-sampling error. Even a Census can carry non-sampling errors.
Some of the non-sampling errors are:
- Errors in Data Acquisition: This type of error stems from recording inaccurate responses.
- Non-Response Errors: Non-response happens if an interviewer is incapable to contact a person listed in the sample or a person from the sample declined to respond. In this case, the sample research may not be representative.
- Sampling Bias: Sampling bias happens when the sampling plan is such that some portion of the target population could not possibly be incorporated into the sample.
Must Read: Class 11 Oscillations Notes
Census of India and NSSO
The census of India is a very important body of our country and is an important part in the chapter class 11 collection, organisation and presentation of data.
- Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), are two significant firms at the national level, which gather, manner, and tabulate data.
- The Census of India produces the most comprehensive and continuous demographic record of the population.
- The NSSO, established by the Government of India to conduct nation-wide surveys on socio-economic issues.
- NSSO gives periodic measures of education, school enrolment, utilization of educational aids, employment, unemployment, manufacturing, and service sector enterprises, morbidity, maternity, child care, utilization of the public distribution system, etc.
Also Read: Class 11 Formation of a Company
We hope the Class 11- Collection of Data notes helped you understand the essential concepts covered in this chapter. Still unsure about which stream to choose after Class 12. Our Leverage Edu experts are here to guide you in selecting the right stream of study to make sure that you make an informed decision. Sign up for a free session with us now!