Class 9 Social Science- People as Resource

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Class 9 Social Science - People as Resource

You are filled with excitement after passing grade 8th and moving towards a much bigger academic milestone, class 9. Ranging from the smell of your freshly bought books to the long list of subjects that you now have to study, everything seems interesting in this particular academic year. Amongst all the subjects in CBSE class 9 syllabus, Social Science stands to be an interesting affair for most of us. Whether it be the introduction to the geographies of the globe or the history of mankind, all the topics have so much to teach you. One such topic from the lot is people as resources. You must have heard about natural resources, manmade resources, but what is human resource? Let us learn more about this class 9 chapter in this blog!

Introduction to People as Resource

The phrase ‘People as a resources’ refers to a country’s working force with respect to their existing skills and abilities. A country’s citizens are its asset. This happens when the skills of the necessary human resource are honed by using education and health as the ‘human capital.’ Human capital uses resources like land and physical labour to increase the value of human capital. Investment in human resources results in the loose formation of human capital. Hence, investment in human capital can guarantee high returns for the future. Examples of countries that have invested heavily in human resources include Japan. Japan, despite having less natural resources, is one of the most developed nations. Human capital helps countries become more productive and increases their respective return on investment (RoI).

The following are brief class 9 social science notes for the chapter ‘people as resources.’ 

Economic and Non-economic Activities

In the chapter, people as resources and economic activities refer to those activities undertaken by people for financial gains. These activities are done for monetary benefits by people. Most often, people employed in economic activities include businesspersons, lawyers, doctors, engineers, drivers, etc. Any action done to help the beneficiary monetarily can be categorized as an economic activity. On the other hand, the economics class 9 NCERT solutions chapter 2 also briefly highlights non-economic activities. These are the activities that do not produce any monetary gain to the person doing it. Money is not the driving force behind such acts. Examples of non-economic activities include worshipping, cleaning, household chores, etc. 

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Division of Economic Activities between Men and Women

If you want to understand what do you mean by people as resources, you have to follow the categorization of commercial activities between men and women. For generations, tasks for men and women have been divided for them. Traditionally, men are perceived as the bread-winners while women are seen as homemakers as they look after the kids, family, and the household. Men go out into the world, work, and bring home money to run a house while women indulge in household chores and raise children. While the man’s work is categorized as economic, women’s tasks are often classified as non-economic.

Classification of Economic Activities 

To better understand people as resources, the classification of economic activities needs to be understood. Economic activities are broadly classified as:

  1. Primary sector (Agriculture sector): This sector includes economic activities like agriculture, forestry, pisciculture, animal husbandry, farming, beekeeping, poultry farming, mining, etc. 
  2. Secondary sector (Manufacturing sector): The manufacturing of all small and big goods falls under this category. The secondary sector also includes construction activities. 
  3. Tertiary sector (Service sector): All service providers fall under the tertiary sector. This includes economic activities like transport, banking, restaurants, communications, health, tourism, etc. 

Here is the class 9 ICSE Biology syllabus for you!

Market and Non-market Activities

Market activities are those activities that give a monetary benefit to the person doing it. It can include anything from the production of goods to services. Non-market activities, on the other hand, are those activities that a person does for their consumption; there is no monetary benefit attached to it. 

People as Resouces: Human Capital

To make the best use of class 9 social science notes, understand the meaning of human capital. Human capital is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in human beings. People are resources that can be utilized as human capital when they hone their skills with proper education, skills, and healthcare. 


Population refers to all the inhabitants of a place. The quality of a population is determined by its literacy rate, skills, health, and life expectancy. These attributes are developed over time. 

Health: People as Resouces

A person with a healthy mind and body can contribute positively to the country’s growth and development. For proper human resource utilization and people as resources, the prospect of health needs to be highly regarded. India has seen a rise in health standards; life expectancy has risen from 37.2 years in 1951 to 63.9 years in 2001. The infant mortality rate has also drastically come down in the country. While the country’s medical conditions are improving every day, there are new medical colleges, hospitals, and healthcare centres opening up in the country’s remotest areas.

People as Resources: Education

The economics class 9 ncert solutions chapter 2 dives deep into the role of education as an essential tool for human resource development. An educated person can earn their livelihood and support the country’s economy. Education gives knowledge and teaches about one’s culture, society, polity, and governance. The Government is increasingly making significant contributions to the development of education facilities across the country. Our expenditure on education has risen from 0.64% of GDP in 1951-52 to 3.98% in 2002-03. The literacy rate in the country has also been on the rise since the past six decades. 

Have a look at the complete class 9 Science syllabus!


Unemployment is an important topic when you think about what you understand as resources. It is a term used for a person when a person who wants to work cannot find work. The said person could be skilled, but a shortage of work pushes them towards unemployment which is a sheer wastage of human resources and capital. Unemployment in rural areas can be divided as: 

  1. Seasonal unemployment: People are out of work for some months in a year and find employment during particular months/seasons. This phenomenon is mostly seen in the agricultural sector. 
  2. Disguised unemployment: This happens when people only appear to be employed but are unemployed. It happens in situations where many people are hired for work, but the actual requirement is of few people. 

Unemployment in urban areas can be described as the phenomena that define the ‘educated unemployed.’ People as resources are disposed of when the educated persons with skill cannot find work. 

Exercise-Based on the Chapter

What do you understand by ‘people as a resource?’

‘People as a resource’ refers to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. Human Resource is an asset for the economy rather than a liability. ‘

How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?

Human resources can make use of land and physical capital whereas land and physical capital can not become useful on their own. 
Land and other resources are fixed, limited, and specified whereas human resources can be nurtured through education and health. 

What is the role of education in human capital formation?

Educated people find jobs in private firms while uneducated people continue with the same work as their families. They earn a meager amount of income like their parents, which is insufficient to run the family. Several years of education adds to the labor which in turn enhances the total productivity. Total productivity adds to the growth of the economy. 

What is the role of human health in human capital formation?

Healthier people have higher productivity because a person’s health helps to realize his potential and the ability to fight illness. 

What part does health play in the individual’s working life?

Health plays an important role in a person’s life because as we all know health is wealth and only a healthy person can work or perform to his full potential. 

What are the various activities are undertaken in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors?

The primary sector includes – agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming. 
The secondary sector includes – Quarrying and manufacturing. 
The tertiary sector includes – Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, etc. 

What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?

Activities that are not performed to earn money but to get some satisfaction, are known as non-economic activities. 
Activities that add value to the national income, are called non-economic activities.

Why are women employed in low-paid work?

A majority of the women have meager education and low skill formation and hence women are paid low compared to men. 

How will you explain the term unemployment?

Unemployment is said to exist when people are willing to work at the going wages but cannot find jobs.

What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?

In the case of disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed but they are not actually employed. 
In the case of seasonal unemployment, people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such problems.

Important Questions – People as Resource Class 9

Check out the list of important questions for the chapter class 9 people as resource:

  1. What are the major factors responsible for unemployment in India?
  2. How is human a recourse?
  3. How many types of recourses are there? Write a short note on each type and give examples.
  4. Describe the provisions made by Indian government for the development of the education and health care sector for the growth of society.
  5. “Health should be treated as an important asset for human capital”. Analyse the statements with reference to our national health policy.
  6. What is the difference between children of educated and uneducated parents?
  7. List down the differences between market and non-market activities.
  8. Explain 3 major effects of unemployment on human resource capital.
  9. What does a Virtuous cycle’ created by the educated parents mean? Explain.
  10. Compare the condition of women in organized and unorganized sector.
Credits – Magnet Brains (Youtube)

The chapter people as resources explain the basic notions of economic activities, employment/unemployment, and economic sectors in the country. The chapter also defines how a fundamental human resource in terms of people as resources can be used as human capital to aid in the country’s development. 

Hope this blog on people as resource, helped you in understanding the importance of Humans and the various characteristics that control their growth. Get in touch with Leverage Edu if you plan to explore various careers in this particular domain. 

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