English Grammar for Class 10 Important Topics with Practice Exercises 

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Grammar is the soul of the English Language. It is important to teach English Grammar to class 10th students which will eventually help them to develop the ability to express themselves effectively. It also enables them to gain writing fluency and communicate with clarity. Grammar lessons refine student’s understanding of basic concepts. In this blog, we will take an overview of the most important topics of English Grammar for class 10 students. It comprises various aspects, such as modals, tenses, active and passive voice, clauses, determiners, etc. Continue reading the blog article below to uncover more about English language topics. 

Syllabus of English Grammar For Class 10

English Grammar for Class 10 important grammar topics include Tenses, Modals, Active and Passive Voice, Clauses, Determiners, and Prepositions. Let us understand all these topics in detail with the help of worksheets and practice exercises. It also includes Integrated grammar for class 10 students.

Chapter Name of Chapters Important Topics
1. Tenses Present Tense, Past Tense, Future Tense
2. Modals Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should
3. Voice Active Voice, Passive Voice
4. Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should Main Clause, Dependent Clause 
5. Determiners This, That, Each, Every, A, An, The, These, Those, Little, A little, The little, Few, A few, The few, etc.
6. Prepositions In, At, On, Besides, Before, Beside, Among, Between, Above, During, For, Since, Towards
7. Reported Speech Direct Speech Indirect Speech
8.  Subject-Verb Concord ______

Quick Read: Improve your English Speaking and Listening Skills by Watching Series and Movies

Tenses 

Tenses define the state or time of the verb or the action. There are three main tenses in the English Language. Each tense is further divided into four types. Therefore we have a total of twelve tenses in English Grammar based on: Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense

Let us understand the rules of each tense from the tables below:

Present Tense Rule

Here are the rules to follow for Present Tense: 

Tenses Rules Examples
Present Simple Tense Subject + V1 + s/es + Object for singular Subject + V1 + Object for plural He likes to eat ice cream.
They water the plants.
Present Continuous Tense He is doing his work. I am going to the mall. He is doing his work.I am going to the mall.
Present Perfect Tense Subject + has/have + V3 + ObjectHas- singular Have-plural He has done his work.
They have completed their work.
Perfect Continuous Tense Subject + has/have+been + V1 + ing + Object+since/for  He has been working in this institution for the last two years.
They have been working in this institution for the last two years.

Past Tense Rule

Here are past tense rules to follow: 

Tenses Rules Examples 
Past Simple Tense Subject + V2 + Object He ate an apple.
Past Continuous Tense Subject + was + V1 + ing + Object with singularSubject + were + V1 + ing + Object with plural He was playing in the garden.
They were eating dinner.
Past Perfect  Subject + had + V3 + Object  He had done his work.
Past Perfect Continuous  Subject + had+ been + V1 + ing + Object+since/for He had been staying there since 1971.

Future Tense Rule

Here are the rules to follow for future tenses: 

Tenses Rules Examples
Future Simple Tense Subject + will/shall + V1 + Object He will play in the garden.
Future Continuous Tense Subject + will be/shall be + ing + V1 + Object He will be playing in the garden.
Future Perfect Tense Subject + will have/shall have + V3 + Object He will have done his work.
Future Perfect Continuous Subject + will have +been + V1 + ing + Object+since/for He will have been working in the institution for the next two years.

Quick Read: Tenses Rules: Charts, Examples, Types [PDF Available]

Modals 

Modals are often termed the auxiliary verbs that are used to depict the ability, possibility, permission, or obligation. As the name suggests modal auxiliary verbs cannot be used alone in the sentence they are dependent on the use of the main verb and are always placed before the main verb in the sentence. For example, He can play tennis. Let us understand the modal auxiliaries and their usage with the help of examples.

Modals

🔖Can: used to express ability, permission, or possibility.

  1.  They can sing beautifully. (ability)
  2.  Can he borrow your pen? (permission)
  3.  It can get chilly in the evenings. (possibility)

🔖 Could: The past form of can, Similar to “can,” and used to define a more polite manner.

  1. Could you please close the door? (polite request)
  2. He could swim when he was five. (past ability)

🔖 May: used to define permission, possibility, or a wish.

  1. She may leave the table. (permission)
  2. It may rain later. (possibility)
  3. May all her dreams come true. (wish)

🔖 Might: The past form of May, Similar to “may,” indicates a lower level of certainty or a more tentative possibility.

  1. They might join us for dinner. (tentative possibility)
  2. It might rain tomorrow. (uncertain possibility)

🔖 Shall: Used in formal context to define suggestions, offers, or future actions.

  1.  Shall I go to a party? (suggestion)
  2.  We shall do our best. (promise)

🔖 Should:  The past form of shall that indicates obligation, advice, or a recommendation.

  1.  She should finish her homework before playing. (obligation)
  2.  She should see a doctor about that cough. (advice)

🔖 Will: used to express future actions, predictions, or willingness.

  1. She will call you later. (future action)
  2. It will rain tomorrow. (prediction)
  3. He will help you with the project. (willingness)

🔖 Would: Similar to “will,” often used in more polite or hypothetical situations.

  1. Would they like some tea? (polite offer)
  2. If she won the lottery, she would travel the world. (hypothetical situation)

🔖 Must: defines necessity, obligation, or a strong recommendation.

  1. They must complete the assignment by Friday. (necessity)
  2. She must be at the airport by 6 AM. (obligation)

🔖 Ought to: Same as  “should,” states obligation, advice, or duty.

  1. She ought to apologize for her behaviour. (advice)
  2. We ought to respect our elders. (Duty)

Also Read: Useful Idioms for IELTS Exams That Will Boost Your Score

Active and Passive Voice

Voice is the grammatical concept that tells the relation of the subject with the object and the object with the subject in the sentence. There are two types of Voice in the English Language.

Active Voice: The verb is said to be in active voice if the subject acts in the sentence or is the doer in the sentence. For example, He eats an apple. In this sentence the subject he acts like eating an apple.

Passive Voice: The verb is said to be in the passive voice when the stress is laid on the action instead of the subject in the sentence, For example, An apple is eaten by him. In this sentence, the stress is laid on the action of the sentence instead of the subject or the doer in the sentence.

voices
Active Voice Passive Voice
The subject is the doer  The object becomes the subject of the sentence
The action is performed by the subject The original subject may or may not be mentioned
The object receives the action The object or the action takes the lead
Structure = Subject+ Verb+ Object Structure= Object + Verb + by +Subject
For Example: Sunita waters a plant. For Example, A plant is watered by Sunita.

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Clauses 

Clauses are a group of words that consist of the subject and the verb. It can be a complete sentence or a part of the sentence. There are three kinds of clauses in the English Grammar.

🔖 Noun Clause: They act as a noun in a sentence. They usually begin with the words such as that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever.

Examples:

  1. Whatever she learns will help her write the test.
  2. What she said made him cry.

🔖 Adverbial Clause: The adverbial clause behaves like an adverb in the sentence that is used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb in the sentence. They usually begin with words such as when, whenever, since, until, before, although, whereas, while, though, unless, if.

Examples:

  1. Don’t go before your father is here.
  2. She had medicine because she was ill.

🔖 Relative /AdjectiveClause: The relative clause acts as an adjective in the sentence that is used to modify nouns or pronouns in the sentence. They usually begin with words such as who, which, what, and whose.

Examples:

  1. The girl who came to visit me is my sister.

Also Read: Clauses: Meaning, Types and Examples

Determiners 

The words that are used before the persons or the things to point them or to indicate them in the sentence. The common examples of determiners are this, that, each, every, a, an, the, these, those, little, a little, the little, few, a few, the few, etc. There are nine types of determiners in English Grammar.

  1. Articles: a, an, the
  2. Predeterminers: all, both, rather, quite, such 
  3. Demonstrative: this, that, these, those
  4. Possessives: his, her, mine, its, 
  5. Ordinals: first, second, last, first
  6. Cardinals: one, two, three, four, hundred
  7. Quantifiers: much, some, no, any, few, little, many, much
  8. Distributives: each, every, either, neither
  9. Interrogatives: what, which, whose, etc.
types of determiners

Quick Read: Tenses Rules: Charts, Examples, Types [PDF Available]

Prepositions

Prepositions are the words that show the relationship of nouns/ pronouns with the other words in the sentence. Some of the common examples of prepositions are in, on, at, among, between, before, above, below, etc.  There are different types of prepositions in the English Grammar.

Prepositions of Time

The prepositions of time tell us about the time of an action. For example in, on, at etc.

They will meet at the park.

Preposition of Place

The Prepositions of place tell about the place or the position of the object. For example behind, beside, etc.

The books are on the table.

Prepositions of Movement

The preposition of movement defines the movement of the object. For example past, down, above, etc.

She walked to the garden.

Prepositions of Manner

The prepositions of manner define how a thing is done. For example by, with, etc.

She sketches by hand.

✅Prepositions of Agent

Prepositions of an agent tell about who commits an action. For example with and by. 

The novel was written by the famous author.

Prepositions of Measure

Prepositions of measure define about the quantity of a thing. For example of and by.

She bought fabric by the yard.

Prepositions of Source

The prepositions of the source tell us about the source from where something is derived from. For example, by and from.

I received a letter from my friend.

types of perpositio

 Find more exciting reads on Prepositions here!

Rules for Prepositions Pictures for Preposition
Prepositions of Place  Time Prepositions 
Uncover 8 Types of Prepositions Prepositions for Class 4 

Reported Speech

The words spoken by the person can be presented in two different ways. Direct Speech: The exact words spoken by the speaker. Indirect Speech: They are not the actual words of the speaker but give the substance of the words spoken. The table below represents the important differences between direct and reported speech that will help you to understand the structure of speech in a better way.

reported speech
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Conveys the direct words of the speaker Highlights the essence of the speaker’s message.
Reported Speech is written in the Quotation Marks. Do not use quotation marks
Usually in the present tense More often in the past tense
No change in pronouns Pronouns are changed according to the perspective of the reporter’s speech.
Punctuation plays an important role. Punctuation is more simplified.
No use of conjunction Use of conjunctions such as that and if 
Question tags are common  Question tags are not used.
Highlights the original tone of the speaker The tone is usually altered due to the interpretation
Words referring to time and place are not changed There is a shift in the words referring to time and place.
It provides a more intimate feel  Often provides a more detached and formal feel 
He said,” I will go to the museum”. He said that he would go to the museum.

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Subject Verb Concord 

A verb must agree with the number and the person. Various rules in the subject-verb concord need to be followed to form grammatically correct sentences. Let us read some of the rules to understand the correct use of subject and verb in the sentence.

🔖 Rule 1: The subject must agree with the verb if the subject is singular we use the singular verb and if the subject is plural we use the plural verb. For example: The price of coal is rising.

🔖 Rule 2:  When we use an uncountable noun as the subject it takes the singular verb. For example: Laughter is a good medicine.

🔖 Rule 3: When we use one of + plural nouns they always take singular verbs. For example: One of the girls is not well.

🔖 Rule 4: Two or more nouns joined together with and always take plural forms. For example: Sita and Rita are best friends.

🔖 Rule 5:  Two or more nouns joined together with or always take singular form. For example: My brother or my friend is sitting here.

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Integrated Grammar For Class 10

This section highlights how the various topics of grammar will be asked in the exam. So, the first question that children of class 10  will get in the grammar section is based on gap-filling. A sample of this question is given along with the answers.

Gap Filling Exercises

Last weekend, my friends and I decided to go on a hiking trip. We were excited about the adventure, but we were aware that the weather __________ changed unexpectedly. To prepare for any surprises, we decided that everyone __________ bring a waterproof jacket and sturdy hiking boots. We knew that the trail __________ be challenging, so we also packed enough water and snacks.

Answers: 

  1. could
  2. should
  3. would

Editing Exercises

The following paragraph has not been edited. There is an error in each line. Pick out the error and write it along with the correction. 

A person should know how to (a) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

interact within diverse (b) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

situations. For instance, some (c) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

cultures adopt gestures or (d) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

facial expressions to convey they’re (e) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

emotions instead of relying only (f) [Error: ________; Correction: ________;]

on spoken words.

Answers: 

a) Should, Should

b) Diverse, Diverse

c) Adopt, Adopting

d) They’re, Their

e) No error

f) Only, Solely

Omission Exercises

The following paragraph requires omission. There is a word that is missing in each line. Identify the place where you need to insert the word and write the both left and right side words where you need to put the word to complete it sense.

Aryabhatta was born (1)

Tamil Nadu. Soon his (2)

family moved  Visakhapatnam at (3)

Andhra Pradesh  Aryabhatta pursued (4)

his education Chennai Presidency College. (5

Answers: 

Born in Tamil Naidu

Moved to Visakhapatnam

Andhra Pradesh and Aryabhatta.

Education in Chennai

Sentence Reordering Exercises

Rearrange the following words/phrases to create a meaningful sentence.

  1. the charm of ancient books/ The old bookstore/ musty smell/had a/filled with 
  2. In the cozy corner/ a dim lamp flickered/ casting a warm glow on the worn-out armchair.
  3. Does as the rain poured outside/ the protagonist delved /into the intriguing plot of the mystery novel.

Answers: 

  1. Filled with the charm of ancient books, the old bookstore had a musty smell.
  2. Casting a warm glow on the worn-out armchair, a dim lamp flickered in the cozy corner.
  3. Delving into the intriguing plot of the mystery novel, the protagonist does so as the rain pours outside.

Sentence Transformation Exercises

Read the conversation given below and complete the paragraph that follows: 

Teacher: Why did you miss the class yesterday?

Student: I missed the class because I had a family emergency.

Teacher: How do you plan to catch up on the missed lessons?

Student: I plan to ask my classmates for notes and work extra hard to understand the material.

The teacher inquired (a)…………. The student responded (b)……………. The teacher, concerned about the missed lessons, asked (c)………… The student replied that he (d)………….

Answers:

(a) why he had missed the class the previous day.

(b) that he had missed the class because he had a family emergency.

(c) how he planned to catch up on the missed lessons.

(d) planned to ask his classmates for notes and work extra hard to understand the material.

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